Beyond extinction: erasing human fear responses and preventing the return of fear

@article{Kindt2009BeyondEE,
  title={Beyond extinction: erasing human fear responses and preventing the return of fear},
  author={Merel Kindt and Marieke Soeter and Bram Vervliet},
  journal={Nature Neuroscience},
  year={2009},
  volume={12},
  pages={256-258}
}
Animal studies have shown that fear memories can change when recalled, a process referred to as reconsolidation. We found that oral administration of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol before memory reactivation in humans erased the behavioral expression of the fear memory 24 h later and prevented the return of fear. Disrupting the reconsolidation of fear memory opens up new avenues for providing a long-term cure for patients with emotional disorders. 
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TLDR
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TLDR
It is shown that the reconsolidation-extinction procedure fails to prevent the spontaneous recovery of a remote contextual fear memory in a mouse model of PTSD, as well as the long-lasting behavioral abnormalities induced by traumatic experience on anxiety and in both social and cognitive domains. Expand
Are fear memories erasable?–reconsolidation of learned fear with fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant stimuli
TLDR
It is found that a single reminder exposure prior to extinction training did not prevent the return of extinguished fear responding using either fear-relevant or fear-irrelevant CSs, pointing to the need to further study the specific parameters that enable disruption of reconsolidation. Expand
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TLDR
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Fear Conditioning: Overview
Fear conditioning refers to the pairing of an initially neutral stimulus with an aversive fear-eliciting stimulus. The conditioned fear response is described in terms of subjective, behavioral, andExpand
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