Beyond Pollination: Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) as Zootherapy Keystone Species

@article{EastonCalabria2019BeyondPH,
  title={Beyond Pollination: Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) as Zootherapy Keystone Species},
  author={August Easton-Calabria and Kristian C. Demary and Nola J. Oner},
  journal={Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution},
  year={2019}
}
The ‘extended phenotype’ expands on the phenotype concept to encompass all effects of a gene, including those that a gene may have on an organism’s surrounding environment. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) can be considered a keystone species that exerts a strong impact on its community through their extended phenotypes that relate to disease resistance. Honey bee extended phenotypes (i.e. honey, propolis, venom, beeswax, bee bread and royal jelly) confer pathogen/pest resistance. Each of these… 

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