Beyond Bipolar Conceptualizations and Measures: The Case of Attitudes and Evaluative Space

  title={Beyond Bipolar Conceptualizations and Measures: The Case of Attitudes and Evaluative Space},
  author={John T. Cacioppo and Wendi L. Gardner and Gary G. Berntson},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Review},
  pages={25 - 3}
All organisms must be capable of differentiating hostile from hospitable stimuli to survive. Typically, this evaluative discrimination is conceptualized as being bipolar (hostile-hospitable). This conceptualization is certainly evident in the area of attitudes, where the ubiquitous bipolar attitude measure, by gauging the net affective predisposition toward a stimulus, treats positive and negative evaluative processes as equivalent, reciprocally activated, and interchangeable. Contrary to… 
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