Beyond Benzodiazepines: Alternative Pharmacologic Agents for the Treatment of Insomnia

@inproceedings{Wagner1998BeyondBA,
  title={Beyond Benzodiazepines: Alternative Pharmacologic Agents for the Treatment of Insomnia},
  author={Judy L. Wagner and Mary L. Wagner and Wiwiet Hening},
  booktitle={The Annals of pharmacotherapy},
  year={1998}
}
OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, etiology, and classification of insomnia and provide an overview of the pharmacologic therapy of insomnia. Novel nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics including zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon, as well as nonprescription products such as valerian and melatonin, are reviewed in detail. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE search was performed to identify relevant clinical studies, case reports, abstracts, and review articles published between April 1992 and December 1997. Key… 

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Although certain hypnotics appear to be free of tolerance on prolonged use, caution is required in the long-term use of any hypnotic because of the lack of systematic data on chronic efficacy and safety, and alternative administration schedules are being investigated.
Zolpidem: an update of its pharmacology, therapeutic efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of insomnia.
TLDR
Although zolpidem produced some psychomotor and memory impairment over the first few hours after administration, it had few next-day effects and was comparable or superior to flunitrazepam and flurazep am and comparable to other benzodiazepines in patients with insomnia.
Pharmacodynamic profile of Zaleplon, a new non‐benzodiazepine hypnotic agent
TLDR
It is shown that zaleplon 10 mg has little or no residual effect when administered in the middle of the night, as late as 1 h before waking, and is devoid of impairment of driving abilities as assessed by actual driving 4’h after dose administration.
Zaleplon for Insomnia
  • I. Maidment
  • Medicine
    The Medical letter on drugs and therapeutics
  • 1999
TLDR
Although zaleplon significantly reduces sleep latency, the effect does not appear to be highly clinically significant, and zalePlon's short half-life does appear to reduce the risk of hangover effects.
Zaleplon: a review of its use in the treatment of insomnia.
TLDR
Zaleplon 5, 10 and 20 mg administered at bedtime, or later if patients have difficulty sleeping, is an effective and well tolerated hypnotic agent and represents a useful option in the management of patients with insomnia who have difficulties initiating sleep.
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