Beyond “Homophobia”: Thinking about sexual prejudice and stigma in the twenty-first century

  title={Beyond “Homophobia”: Thinking about sexual prejudice and stigma in the twenty-first century},
  author={Gregory M. Herek},
  journal={Sexuality Research \& Social Policy},
  • G. Herek
  • Published 1 April 2004
  • Psychology, Sociology
  • Sexuality Research & Social Policy
George Weinberg’s introduction of the term homophobia in the late 1960s challenged traditional thinking about homosexuality and helped focus society’s attention on the problem of antigay prejudice and stigma. This paper briefly describes the history and impact of homophobia. The term’s limitations are discussed, including its underlying assumption that antigay prejudice is based mainly on fear and its inability to account for historical changes in how society regards homosexuality and… 

Sexual stigma and sexual prejudice in the United States: a conceptual framework.

  • G. Herek
  • Psychology
    Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation
  • 2009
The present chapter elaborates on the value of framing heterosexuals’ negative responses to sexual minorities in terms of sexual prejudice and provides a more detailed framework than previously presented for conceptualizing both societal and individual reactions to homosexuality andSexual minorities in the United States.

Sexual equity is more than avoiding homophobia

As one of my first tasks as Editor for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) issues, the Editor-in-Chief asked me to consider whether Sexual and Relationship Therapy (SRT) was homophobic. The

Homophobia: an updated review of the literature

The world in 2010 is a very different place to 1987 when Bhugra's paper on homophobia was published. Huge shifts have occurred in society's attitudes to gender, sex, sexuality and identity – notably

`Not Gay, but Not Homophobic': Male Sexuality and Homophobia in the `Lifestyle'

This article explores the relative lack of male same-sex activity in heterosexual `swinging', or `the lifestyle', especially compared to the ubiquity of female same-sex activity and eroticism.

Negative Attitudes to Lesbians and Gay Men: Persecutors and Victims

Negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men widespread in multiple spheres including mass media, politics, public institutions, pseudoscientific contexts, and interpersonal relationships can be

Agapé Christian Reconciliation Conversations: Exploring the Intersections of Culture, Religiousness, and Homosexual Identity in Latino and European Americans

To understand how homophobia manifests itself through a Latino cultural lens of identity, a program was designed to address the issues connecting homosexual identity, culture, and Christianity and illustrates a positive trend in changing attitudes towards homosexuality in the Latino Christian community.

‘It’s Nothing Personal’: Anti-Homosexuality in the British Workplace

Scholarship on homophobia has been critiqued for being individualistic and psychological, failing to account for structural inequalities, experiences of homophobia and discursive manifestations of

Shades of Homophobia: A Framework for Analyzing Negative Attitudes Toward Homosexuality

  • Frida Lyonga
  • Psychology, Sociology
    Journal of homosexuality
  • 2019
The proposed homophobia framework postulates that negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians can manifest in seven distinct, yet interrelated shades, namely radical, prohibitionist, denialist, avoidance, morbidity, tepid, and veiled.


If the belief that homosexuality is a sin constitutes an aspect of homophobia, then any person whose religious ideology posits homosexuality as sinful would be judged as homophobic. As such, the

Neoliberal Homophobic Discourse: Heteronormative Human Capital and the Exclusion of Queer Citizens

It is demonstrated how a U.S. based, conservative Christian organization's institutionalized homophobic text-making practices seek to derive legitimacy from the broader political economic discourses associated with the neoliberal moment.



Beyond "homophobia": a social psychological perspective on attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.

  • G. Herek
  • Psychology
    Journal of homosexuality
  • 1984
It is argued that a more complex view is needed of the psychology of positive and negative attitudes toward homosexual persons, and a model is proposed that distinguishes three types of attitudes according to the social psychological function they serve.

The Psychology of Sexual Prejudice

Sexual prejudice refers to negative attitudes toward an individual because of her or his sexual orientation. In this article, the term is used to characterize heterosexuals' negative attitudes toward

The Context of Anti-Gay Violence

Hate crimes against lesbians and gay men occur within a broader cultural context that is permeated by heterosexism. Heterosexism is defined here as an ideological system that denies, denigrates, and


Abstract The panelists participating in this public forum of the American Psychoanalytic Association discuss homophobia as a permissible prejudice from a variety of perspectives. Leon Hoffman, chair

Homophobia? No, homoprejudice.

  • C. R. Logan
  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of homosexuality
  • 1996
Findings indicated that there is little, if any, evidence to support the characterization of anti-homosexual responses as a phobia and that males were less tolerant than females of gays and lesbians and males and females respond differentially according to same-sex target.

Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence

  • A. Rich
  • Art
    Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society
  • 1980
In its first issue (Autumn 1975), Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society published Carroll Smith-Rosenberg's now classic article, "The Female World of Love and Ritual: Relations between Women

“Homophobia” or homosexual bias reconsidered

  • B. Fyfe
  • Psychology
    Archives of sexual behavior
  • 1983
It is suggested that the concept of homophobia be abandoned in favor of another concept such as homosexual bias, except in rare cases where anxiety arousal leads to overt phobic avoidance.

Homophobia and physical aggression toward homosexual and heterosexual individuals.

The homophobic group reported significantly more negative affect, anxiety, and anger-hostility after watching the homosexual erotic videotape than did the nonhomophobic group, and the homophobic group was significantly more aggressive toward the homosexual opponent, but the groups did not differ in aggression toward the heterosexual opponent.

Stigma, prejudice, and violence against lesbians and gay men.

Institutional and personal hostility toward lesbians and gay men is a fact of life in the United States today. At the cultural level, homosexuality remains stigmatized through institutional policies.

Assessing the structure of prejudicial attitudes: The case of attitudes toward homosexuals.

Two studies assessed the structure of attitudes toward homosexuals. In Study 1, Ss completed measures of stereotypes, symbolic beliefs, and affective associates as well as attitudes toward