Between Civil Rights and Black Power in the Gateway City: The Action Committee to Improve Opportunities for Negroes (ACTION), 1964-75

  title={Between Civil Rights and Black Power in the Gateway City: The Action Committee to Improve Opportunities for Negroes (ACTION), 1964-75},
  author={Clarence Lang},
  journal={Journal of Social History},
  pages={725 - 754}
  • Clarence Lang
  • Published 1 March 2004
  • Sociology
  • Journal of Social History
This article discusses the origins and development of the Action Committee to Improve Opportunities for Negroes (ACTION), a protest organization based in St. Louis, Missouri. Active during the 1960s and 1970s, the group used militant, nonviolent direct action to fight for more and better black employment at the city's major firms. Exploring ACTION's evolution contributes to a revisionist narrative of the Civil Rights' struggle that foregrounds local working-class African Americans. A study of… 
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