Beta-keto amphetamines: studies on the metabolism of the designer drug mephedrone and toxicological detection of mephedrone, butylone, and methylone in urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

@article{Meyer2010BetaketoAS,
  title={Beta-keto amphetamines: studies on the metabolism of the designer drug mephedrone and toxicological detection of mephedrone, butylone, and methylone in urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry},
  author={Markus R. Meyer and Jens Wilhelm and Frank T. Peters and Hans H. Maurer},
  journal={Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry},
  year={2010},
  volume={397},
  pages={1225-1233}
}
In recent years, a new class of designer drugs has appeared on the drugs of abuse market in many countries, namely, the so-called beta-keto (bk) designer drugs such as mephedrone (bk-4-methylmethamphetamine), butylone (bk-MBDB), and methylone (bk-MDMA). The aim of the present study was to identify the metabolites of mephedrone in rat and human urine using GC-MS techniques and to include mephedrone, butylone, and methylone within the authors’ systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure… 
Studies on the metabolism of the α-pyrrolidinophenone designer drug methylenedioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV) in rat and human urine and human liver microsomes using GC-MS and LC-high-resolution MS and its detectability in urine by GC-MS.
TLDR
The aim of the presented work was to identify the phase I and II metabolites of MDPV and the human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoenzymes responsible for its main metabolic step(s), and the detectability of M DPV in urine by the authors' systematic toxicological analysis (STA).
Elucidation of the metabolites of the novel psychoactive substance 4-methyl-N-ethyl-cathinone (4-MEC) in human urine and pooled liver microsomes by GC-MS and LC-HR-MS/MS techniques and of its detectability by GC-MS or LC-MS(n) standard screening approaches.
TLDR
An intake of 4-MEC should be detectable in urine by the GC-MS and LC-MS(n) standard urine screening approaches at least after overdose, and pathways proposed were similar to those described for the N-methyl homologue mephedrone and other related drugs.
Pharmacokinetics of Mephedrone and Its Metabolites in Human by LC-MS/MS
TLDR
The validated method used was used to test metabolite ability to cross the blood-brain barrier in vivo in rats with mephedrone and nor-mephedrone as the main active compounds present in the brain.
In vitro metabolism studies on mephedrone and analysis of forensic cases.
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It is found that cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) was the main responsible enzyme for the in vitro Phase I metabolism of mephedrone, with some minor contribution from other NAPDH-dependent enzymes.
Identification of three new phase II metabolites of a designer drug methylone formed in rats by N-demethylation followed by conjugation with dicarboxylic acids
TLDR
Three new phase II metabolites, amidic conjugates of MDC with succinic, glutaric and adipic acid, were identified in the urine of rats dosed subcutaneously with MDMC, and ring-opened metabolites derived from MDC were identified for the first time in vivo.
Studies on the metabolism and the detectability of 4-methyl-amphetamine and its isomers 2-methyl-amphetamine and 3-methyl-amphetamine in rat urine using GC-MS and LC-(high-resolution)-MSn
TLDR
The aims of the presented work were to study the metabolism and detectability of each isomer in urine samples of 4-MA and its isomers and to confirm the intake of a commonly used dose of the MAs with an additional workup in rat urine.
Mass Spectrometric Evaluation of Mephedrone In Vivo Human Metabolism: Identification of Phase I and Phase II Metabolites, Including a Novel Succinyl Conjugate
TLDR
A mephedrone metabolite conjugated with succinic acid has been identified and confirmed by synthesis, which is the first time that this type of conjugate is reported for human metabolism.
Metabolism of N-ethylhexedrone and buphedrone: An in vivo study in mice using HPLC-MS/MS.
  • J. Carrola, N. Duarte, M. Bronze
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  • 2020
Urinary excretion and metabolism of the newly encountered designer drug 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone in humans
TLDR
Concentrations of the identified metabolites were found to increase slightly after enzymatic hydrolysis, suggesting that these compounds are partially metabolized to the respective conjugates.
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