Beta-keto amphetamines: studies on the metabolism of the designer drug mephedrone and toxicological detection of mephedrone, butylone, and methylone in urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

  title={Beta-keto amphetamines: studies on the metabolism of the designer drug mephedrone and toxicological detection of mephedrone, butylone, and methylone in urine using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry},
  author={Markus R. Meyer and Jens Wilhelm and Frank T. Peters and Hans H. Maurer},
  journal={Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry},
In recent years, a new class of designer drugs has appeared on the drugs of abuse market in many countries, namely, the so-called beta-keto (bk) designer drugs such as mephedrone (bk-4-methylmethamphetamine), butylone (bk-MBDB), and methylone (bk-MDMA). The aim of the present study was to identify the metabolites of mephedrone in rat and human urine using GC-MS techniques and to include mephedrone, butylone, and methylone within the authors’ systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure… 
Studies on the metabolism of the α-pyrrolidinophenone designer drug methylenedioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV) in rat and human urine and human liver microsomes using GC-MS and LC-high-resolution MS and its detectability in urine by GC-MS.
The aim of the presented work was to identify the phase I and II metabolites of MDPV and the human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoenzymes responsible for its main metabolic step(s), and the detectability of M DPV in urine by the authors' systematic toxicological analysis (STA).
Elucidation of the metabolites of the novel psychoactive substance 4-methyl-N-ethyl-cathinone (4-MEC) in human urine and pooled liver microsomes by GC-MS and LC-HR-MS/MS techniques and of its detectability by GC-MS or LC-MS(n) standard screening approaches.
An intake of 4-MEC should be detectable in urine by the GC-MS and LC-MS(n) standard urine screening approaches at least after overdose, and pathways proposed were similar to those described for the N-methyl homologue mephedrone and other related drugs.
Pharmacokinetics of Mephedrone and Its Metabolites in Human by LC-MS/MS
The validated method used was used to test metabolite ability to cross the blood-brain barrier in vivo in rats with mephedrone and nor-mephedrone as the main active compounds present in the brain.
In vitro metabolism studies on mephedrone and analysis of forensic cases.
It is found that cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) was the main responsible enzyme for the in vitro Phase I metabolism of mephedrone, with some minor contribution from other NAPDH-dependent enzymes.
Identification of three new phase II metabolites of a designer drug methylone formed in rats by N-demethylation followed by conjugation with dicarboxylic acids
Three new phase II metabolites, amidic conjugates of MDC with succinic, glutaric and adipic acid, were identified in the urine of rats dosed subcutaneously with MDMC, and ring-opened metabolites derived from MDC were identified for the first time in vivo.
Studies on the metabolism and the detectability of 4-methyl-amphetamine and its isomers 2-methyl-amphetamine and 3-methyl-amphetamine in rat urine using GC-MS and LC-(high-resolution)-MSn
The aims of the presented work were to study the metabolism and detectability of each isomer in urine samples of 4-MA and its isomers and to confirm the intake of a commonly used dose of the MAs with an additional workup in rat urine.
Mass Spectrometric Evaluation of Mephedrone In Vivo Human Metabolism: Identification of Phase I and Phase II Metabolites, Including a Novel Succinyl Conjugate
A mephedrone metabolite conjugated with succinic acid has been identified and confirmed by synthesis, which is the first time that this type of conjugate is reported for human metabolism.
Metabolism of N-ethylhexedrone and buphedrone: An in vivo study in mice using HPLC-MS/MS.
  • J. Carrola, N. Duarte, M. Bronze
  • Chemistry, Biology
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
  • 2020
Urinary excretion and metabolism of the newly encountered designer drug 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone in humans
Concentrations of the identified metabolites were found to increase slightly after enzymatic hydrolysis, suggesting that these compounds are partially metabolized to the respective conjugates.


New designer drug alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (PVP): studies on its metabolism and toxicological detection in rat urine using gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques.
Nine different human cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in the side chain hydroxylation of PVP was investigated and CYP 2B6, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 were found to catalyze this reaction.
Metabolism of the recently encountered designer drug, methylone, in humans and rats
The results demonstrate that the analysis of HMMC will be indispensable for proof of the use of methylone in forensic urinalysis.
Metabolism and toxicological detection of the designer drug 4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine in rat urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
The authors’ systematic toxicological analysis procedure using full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction and microwave-assisted acetylation allowed the detection of an intake of a dose of DOC in rat urine that corresponds to a common drug user’s dose.
Methylone and mCPP, two new drugs of abuse?
Recently, two new ecstasy‐like substances, methylone and mCPP, were found in street drugs in the Netherlands by the Drugs Information and Monitoring System (DIMS). Methylone
Combined intoxication with methylone and 5-MeO-MIPT