Beta agonists in livestock feed: status, health concerns, and international trade.

  title={Beta agonists in livestock feed: status, health concerns, and international trade.},
  author={Terence J. Centner and Jonathan Alvey and Alexander M. Stelzleni},
  journal={Journal of animal science},
  volume={92 9},
Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride in animal feeds, usage of those compounds has been a topic of worldwide debate. Ractopamine and zilpaterol are β-adrenergic agonists used as veterinary drugs to increase weight gain in certain animals raised for food. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) established maximum residue limits for ractopamine, which were adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission… 
Comparison of beta-ligands used in cattle production: structures, safety, and biological effects
Lubabegron is a newly developed selective beta-adrenergic modulator with unique structural and functional features and is approved for use in cattle to reduce ammonia emissions per unit of live or carcass weight.
Quantification of ractopamine residues on and in beef digestive tract tissues.
Improvements may be needed to reduce the likelihood of contamination from residual ractopamine in digestive tract-derived edible offal tissues for market, as well as develop and validate a LC-MS/MS assay.
Effects of differing withdrawal times from ractopamine hydrochloride on residue concentrations of beef muscle, adipose tissue, rendered tallow, and large intestine
Results of this study provide a baseline for the development of management protocol recommendations associated with withdrawal following group-feeding of RAC to beef cattle in countries that allow RAC use and intend to export to global markets which may be subject to zero tolerance policies and off-target tissue testing.
Investigation into an ongoing dilemma: Undefined welfare implications challenging the use of beta-adrenergic agonists in beef production
Beta-adrenergic agonists (βAA) are administered during the final weeks of the beef production system to improve efficiency and increase meat yield. Welfare concerns linked to the administration of
Laboratory validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the detection of ractopamine, clenbuterol and salbutamol in bovine and swine muscle at sub-μg kg–1 regulatory limits
The method was demonstrated to be suitable for the determination of RAC, CLB and SLB in swine and cattle muscle samples and meets the Brazilian regulatory requirement that establishes criteria and procedures for the determined parameters such as CCα, CCβ, precision and recovery.
Determination of Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists in Animal Tissues and Urine Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry : Waters
Here we show a specific, targeted method that we developed in collaboration with Fera Science for β-agonists determination in a range of sample types that meets requirements for both official control
Clinical and diagnostic evaluation of finished cattle exposed to beta adrenergic agonists and physical exertion
Investigation of physiologic and management factors that may be associated with adverse effects of the use of beta adrenergic agonists in cattle found low stress handling methods throughout the beef industry should be pursued.
Detection of residues in urine and tissues of sheep treated with trace levels of dietary ractopamine HCl.
The use of qualitative tests to indicate purposeful treatment of animals, in the absence of collaborating quantitative data, is inappropriate, and the sensitivity with which the rapid, qualitative assay detected ractopamine was sufficient to reveal trace rACTopamine exposures is suggested.


Increased Mortality in Groups of Cattle Administered the β-Adrenergic Agonists Ractopamine Hydrochloride and Zilpaterol Hydrochloride
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two β-adrenergic agonists (βAA) for in-feed administration to cattle fed in confinement for human consumption. Anecdotal reports have
Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Eighty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.
This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such
Perspectives on the application of zilpaterol hydrochloride in the United States beef industry.
Zilpaterol hydrochloride has been shown to increase cattle growth and efficiency as well as lean tissue deposition in the carcass, with some impact on carcass traits such as Warner-Bratzler shear force.
Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food.
  • A. Peters
  • Medicine
    World Health Organization technical report series
  • 2003
Effects of two beta-adrenergic agonists on finishing performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of feedlot steers.
Variables related to meat color indicated that both beta-agonists led to a similar redness of the LM area related to the control group, and meat tenderness from treated animals was classified as intermediate.
Book Review: Toxicological Evaluation of Certain Veterinary Drug Residues in Food
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Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and days on the finishing diet on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness in beef heifers.
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Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.
This article argues that building a more systematic approach and normative basis for WTO judicial review of standard- setting decisions and the selection of technical experts would be instrumental to strengthening the mutual supports between the WTO and international standard-setting organizations, and may help avoid the introduction of a prejudice toward a justified science finding.
Overview of the effects of beta-adrenergic receptor agonists on animal growth including mechanisms of action.
The large number of physiological functions controlled by beta-AR suggests that the mechanism(s) for the observed changes in carcass composition may be extremely complex.
Beta-Adrenergic receptor modulation of adipocyte metabolism and growth
It is expected that some βAR agonists would have different effects in the same tissue in different species because of different βAR subtype distribution and amino acid sequence.