Beta-Glucosidase activity has been determined in homogenate and in centrifugation fractions of 7-day-old and adult rat brain; maximum activity was found at pH 4 and pH 5. Of the adult brain, more than 50% of the activity was concentrated in the 800-g sediment fraction (P1), while in the brain of 7-day-old rat about 20% was found in the corresponding fraction. The activity maximum in all fractions after a 2% Triton X-100 treatment occurs at pH 5. Addition of Triton to adult brain homogenate enhances the activity, but this stimulation is less than the sum of the activities observed at pH 4 and pH 5 in the absence of Triton. Triton addition to brain homogenate of 7-day-old rat results in a fall in activity at pH 4 and in a maximum at pH 5. In rat brain homogenate subjected to sonication, a loss of activity is observed at pH 4, scarcely at pH 5; the activity loss is completely abolished and turned into an increase under the influence of Triton. This increase equals the level obtained when Triton is added to an untreated brain homogenate. Sonication of rat brain homogenate leads to changes in the distribution pattern; about 25% of the activity of the adult brain is found in the P1 fraction compared to 50% in the corresponding fraction of the untreated brain. Fractionation of a sonicated brain homogenate from adult rat reveals that at pH 4 most activity (52%) is concentrated in the 20,000-g pellet (P2), 23% in supernatant fluid (S2); at pH 5 the opposite is observed; most activity (49%) is found in the 20,000-g supernatant (S2) and 23% in the 20,000-g pellet (P2). In the presence of Triton the activity of the sonicated brain homogenate of adult rat increases; this stimulation roughly equals the sum of the corresponding activities measured at pH 4 and pH 5 in the absence of Triton.