Berkson's bias, selection bias, and missing data.

@article{Westreich2012BerksonsBS,
  title={Berkson's bias, selection bias, and missing data.},
  author={Daniel J. Westreich},
  journal={Epidemiology},
  year={2012},
  volume={23 1},
  pages={159-64}
}
Although Berkson's bias is widely recognized in the epidemiologic literature, it remains underappreciated as a model of both selection bias and bias due to missing data. Simple causal diagrams and 2 × 2 tables illustrate how Berkson's bias connects to collider bias and selection bias more generally, and show the strong analogies between Berksonian selection bias and bias due to missing data. In some situations, considerations of whether data are missing at random or missing not at random are… CONTINUE READING
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