Benzodiazepines and anterior pituitary function

  title={Benzodiazepines and anterior pituitary function},
  author={Emanuela Arvat and Roberta Giordano and S. Grottoli and Ezio Ghigo},
  journal={Journal of Endocrinological Investigation},
Benzodiazepines (BDZ) are one of the most prescribed classes of drugs because of their marked anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and hypnotic effects. The pharmacological actions of BDZ depend on the activation of 2 specific receptors. The central BDZ receptor, present in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS), is a component of the GABA-A receptor, the activation of which increases GABAergic neurotransmission and is followed by remarkable neuroendocrine effects. The… 
Benzodiazepine as an Antihypertensive Agent on Adult and Elderly: A Review
Certain benzodiazepines could be useful as an antihypertensive agent with or without conventional anti-HTN, following an argument on findings of past studies.
Neuroregulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis in Humans: Effects of GABA-, Mineralocorticoid-, and GH-Secretagogue-Receptor Modulation
GABA agonists (mainly ALP), ghrelin, as well as MR agonists/antagonists, may represent good tools to explore the activity of the HPA axis in both physiological conditions and pathological states characterized by an impaired control of the corticotroph function.
The involvement of noradrenergic mechanisms in the suppressive effects of diazepam on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in female rats
The results suggest that α2-adrenoreceptors activity, as well as intact presynaptic noradrenergic function, are required for the suppressive effect of diazepam on the HPA axis activity.
Alprazolam (a benzodiazepine activating GABA receptor) reduces the neuroendocrine responses to insulin‐induced hypoglycaemia in humans
The ALP effects on the neurohormonal responses to hypoglycaemia in a group of normal subjects was studied to clarify the neuroendocrine actions of ALP.
Acute administration of alprazolam, a benzodiazepine activating GABA receptors, inhibits cortisol secretion in patients with subclinical but not overt Cushing’s syndrome
ALP amplifies the cortisol inhibition exerted by 1-mg DST in patients with SCS but not in those with CS, and reduces cortisol levels <3 and <1.8 μg/dl in 50 and 23 % of SCS patients, respectively.
Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone and alprazolam on hypothalamic-pituitary responses to exercise.
Together DHEA and APZ may up-regulate GH during exercise by blunting a suppressive (HPA axis) and potentiating an excitatory (glutamate receptor) system.
Targeting the Glucocorticoid Receptors During Alcohol Withdrawal to Reduce Protracted Neurocognitive Disorders
Clinical and preclinical data suggest that baclofen exerts an effective and more powerful counteracting action on such persistent cognitive and endocrine dysfunctions as compared to diazepam, even though its potential negative effects on memory processes, particularly at high doses, should be better taken into account.


Peripheral-type benzodiazepine/diazepam binding inhibitor receptor: biological role in steroidogenic cell function.
Because of their abundance in peripheral tissues and in order to distinguish them from the GABAA or central benzodiazepine receptors, this class of benzodi...
Selective antagonists of benzodiazepines
The main properties of a representative of this novel class of specific benzodiazepine antagonists are described, whose unique pharmacological activity is to prevent or abolish in a highly selective manner at the receptor level all the characteristic centrally mediated effects of active Benzodiazepines.
Receptors for the age of anxiety: pharmacology of the benzodiazepines.
Evidence indicates that the benzodiazepines exert their therapeutic effects by interacting with a high-affinity binding site (receptor) in the brain and several naturally occurring compounds, including the purines and nicotinamide, are candidates for this role.
Ethyl β-carboline carboxylate lowers seizure threshold and antagonizes flurazepam-induced sedation in rats
It is reported here that, in contrast to the benzodiazepines, β-CCE lowers seizure threshold and reverses the sedative effect of flurazepam, and if β- CCE has a close structural relationship to the endogenous ligand, benzodiazines may be antagonistic at the receptor site.
Effects of chronic antidepressant and benzodiazepine treatment on corticotropin-releasing-factor receptors in rat brain and pituitary.
Interaction of benzodiazepines with neuroleptics at central dopamine neurons
It is concluded that benzodiazepines, by intensifying GABA-ergic transmission, enhance the ongoing inhibition of mesencephalic dopamine neurons exerted by the striatonigral GABA system, resulting in a reduction of the neuroleptic-induced increase of HVA and in the potentiation of the cataleptic effect of neuroleptics.
Effects of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in the rat.
High concentrations of the "peripheral" benzodiazepine binding site ("receptor") have been described in the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal glands to examine the effects of ligands of this binding site on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA).
Benzodiazepine antagonism of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone receptors: biphasic actions on growth hormone secretion in domestic fowl.
  • S. Harvey
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of endocrinology
  • 1993
Results demonstrate benzodiazepine antagonism of TRH-binding sites in domestic fowl and a biphasic modulation of GH secretion, which may be mediated through opposing actions at pituitary and central sites.