Benzodiazepine-induced sedation and cortisol suppression

  title={Benzodiazepine-induced sedation and cortisol suppression},
  author={P. Christensen and Anette Lolk and Lars Freng Gram and Per Kragh‐S{\o}rensen},
The sedative and cortisol suppressing properties of oxazepam (45 and 60 mg) and nitrazepam (10 and 15 mg) were examined in eight healthy male subjects. The most clear differences between oxazepam and nitrazepam were those seen with respect to the time course and until maximal effect (Tmax) of the different measurements. Nitrazepam showed maximal sedation after 1 h, maximal benzodiazepine level (RRA), and reaction time prolongation after 2 h, and maximal cortisol suppression after 3 h. Oxazepam… 

Effects of flumazenil on recovery sleep and hormonal secretion after sleep deprivation in male controls

Since the SD-induced changes in sleep EEG and plasma GH secretion were antagonized by flumazenil, it is suggested that electrophysiological and hormonal effects of SD are mediated at least in part through GABAergic mechanisms.

Flumazenil exerts intrinsic activity on sleep EEG and nocturnal hormone secretion in normal controls

This study demonstrates that at the level of the sleep EEG and neuroendocrine activity flumazenil is capable of exerting both agonistic and inverse agonistic or antagonistic effects.

Long-Term Benzodiazepine Use and Salivary Cortisol: The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

Results indicate that long-term BZD use is not convincingly associated with HPA axis alterations, and the finding of slightly lower evening cortisol levels in daily and infrequent BzD users compared to nonusers is indicated.

Oxazepam for the Treatment of Substance Abuse and Depression: Is it Appropriate?

  • R. Howland
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services
  • 2016
Oxazepam is potentially useful in the treatment of substance abuse, especially in conjunction with the cortisol synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, and can be considered an appropriate medication to use in thereatment of depression.

Effects of oxazepam on eye movements and performance in vigilance tasks with static and dynamic stimuli

There were dose-dependent effects of oxazepam on absolute, overall level of performance but not on the decrement with time, and the non-dose-dependent aggravation of the decrements in correct detections could only partly be accounted for by pharmacokinetics and increased eyelid closures, and was also caused by pharmacodynamic effects of the drug, such as those on attention.

Biomarkers for the effects of benzodiazepines in healthy volunteers.

Subjective and objective measures of alertness were most sensitive to benzodiazepines, and the most consistent effects were observed on saccadic peak velocity (SPV) and visual analogue scores ( VAS) of Alertness, where 100% and 79% of all studies respectively showed statistically significant effects.

Neuroendocrine pathways in benzodiazepine dependence: new targets for research and therapy

Alterations in the intracortical ratio of NPY, CCK and CRH are correlated with behavioural changes like increased respectively decreased anxiety and subsequent alterations in the activity of the HPA axis, providing topics for further research.

Inhibitory effect of diazepam on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in female rats

It is suggested that central benzodiazepine receptors, the part of GABA-A macromolecular complex, are involved in diazepam-induced inhibition of the activity of the HPA axis.

Bretazenil modulates sleep EEG and nocturnal hormone secretion in normal men

The influence of oral administration of 1 mg bretazenil on the sleep EEG and the concomitant nocturnal secretion of cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin in ten healthy young men was examined.



Afternoon plasma cortisol in relation to depression A replication study

The consistent finding of a correlation with the stress/distress items suggest that this factor is important in relation to the hypersecretion of cortisol during depression and this may explain the limited diagnostic power of spontaneous and suppressed cortisol levels.

Suppression of plasma cortisol after oral administration of oxazepam in man.

In seven healthy male subjects plasma cortisol was measured at 20 min intervals from 07.00 to 13.00 h, during a drug free control test and after oral administration of 30 and 60 mg oxazepam. A

Spontaneous afternoon plasma cortisol in depression.

Pharmacokinetic and clinical studies with a benzodiazepine radioreceptor assay.

  • R. Dorow
  • Biology, Medicine
    Psychopharmacology. Supplementum
  • 1984
Findings indicate that BD-receptor preparations as used for the RRA are valuable tools to investigate binding affinities and pharmacokinetic properties of BD.

Factors modifying the effect of diazepam on plasma corticosterone levels in rats.

The Benzodiazepines: Current Standards for Medical Practice

The benzodiazepines: public health, social and regulatory issues, international legislation and relation to the Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971.

Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Benzodiazepines

As the benzodiazepine dependency syndromes and their treatment are described in detail in Chapter 17, they will not be addressed here.

Clinical Pharmacokinetics of the Benzodiazepines

This chapter summarizes the major pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of the benzodiazepine derivatives and the possible relation of these properties to their clinical actions.