Benzodiazepine Dependence

@article{Marriott1993BenzodiazepineD,
  title={Benzodiazepine Dependence},
  author={Sarah Marriott and Peter Tyrer},
  journal={Drug Safety},
  year={1993},
  volume={9},
  pages={93-103}
}
SummaryBenzodiazepine dependence is a frequent complication of regular prescriptions for 4 weeks or longer, occurring in almost one-third of patients. Although it is also manifested by tolerance to drug effects and occasional drug seeking behaviour, particularly in those prone to drug abuse, most dependence is characterised by a withdrawal syndrome on stopping treatment. The withdrawal syndrome includes symptoms of anxiety and those of perceptual disturbance such as depersonalisation… 

Use and Discontinuation of Hypnosedative Medications

Although no unanimous recommendations concerning the optimal duration of the withdrawal process exist, BZDs may easily be withdrawn during a short period in most patients who are habituated to a low dose, if an initial phase with dose reduction and psychological support are provided.

Intravenous flumazenil infusion to treat benzodiazepine dependence should be performed in the inpatient clinical setting for high risk of seizure

Flu-I appears to be a highly effective treatment resulting in withdrawal discomfort of lesser severity than any other treatment cessation currently available but, in the authors' opinion, FLU-I is not so safe as suggested by Hood et al.

Guidelines for the Rational Use of Benzodiazepines

Indications for benzodiazepines include acute stress reactions, episodic anxiety, fluctuations in generalised anxiety, and as initial treatment for severe panic and agoraphobia.

The diagnosis and management of benzodiazepine dependence

  • H. Ashton
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Current opinion in psychiatry
  • 2005
Benzodiazepine dependence could be prevented by adherence to recommendations for short-term prescribing (2–4 weeks only when possible), and withdrawal from dependent patients is feasible and need not be traumatic if judiciously, and often individually, managed.

Guidelines for the rational use of benzodiazepines. When and what to use.

Indications for benzodiazepines include acute stress reactions, episodic anxiety, fluctuations in generalised anxiety, and as initial treatment for severe panic and agoraphobia, and occasionally in acute psychoses.

IS THERE A RATIONALE FOR PRESCRIPTION OF BENZODIAZEPINES IN THE ELDERLY? REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Benzodiazepines (BZDs) constitute the most widely used symptomatic treatment of insomnia and anxiety and may easily be withdrawn during a short period in most patients who are habituated to a low dose, if an initial phase with dose reduction and psychological support are provided.

Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics

Among these BZDs, clorazepate has a unique profile that includes a long half‐life of its active metabolite and slow onset of tolerance, which could theoretically help minimize adverse events.

Use of benzodiazepines and detoxification with methadone

A systematic study on the behavior profile of a patient admitted to a prison hospital, who is a benzodiazepines user consecutive to admission into a methadone administration program, finding a strong positive correlation.

Acute and Persistent Withdrawal Syndromes Following Discontinuation of Psychotropic Medications

The present overview aimed at analyzing the literature to illustrate withdrawal after decrease, discontinuation, or switch of psychotropic medications based on the drug class, finding that benzodiazepines should be substituted by medications that cause less dependence such as antidepressants and antipsychotics runs counter the available literature.

Withdrawal of Benzodiazepines in The Elderly Inpatients: How To Do It? Yafll› Hastalarda Benzodiazepinlerin Kesilmesi: Nas›l Yap›lmal›?

There is a general awareness that BZD use is inappropriate in many patients, and therefore discontinuation should be recommended whenever possible, and long-term use of these drugs should be actively discouraged.