Benefits and Harms of Cranial Electrical Stimulation for Chronic Painful Conditions, Depression, Anxiety, and Insomnia

@article{Shekelle2018BenefitsAH,
  title={Benefits and Harms of Cranial Electrical Stimulation for Chronic Painful Conditions, Depression, Anxiety, and Insomnia},
  author={Paul Shekelle and Ian Cook and Isomi M. Miake-Lye and Marika Suttorp Booth and Jessica M. Beroes and Selene S. Mak},
  journal={Annals of Internal Medicine},
  year={2018},
  volume={168},
  pages={414-421}
}
Cranial electrical stimulation (CES) is a noninvasive method of applying low-intensity electrical current to the head. It is related to but distinct from other forms of transcranial electrical stimulation, including electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial direct current stimulation. Versions of transcranial electrical stimulation vary in the placement of electrodes and the intensity and waveform of the current (1). According to Guleyupoglu and colleagues (1), CES evolved from the concept of… 
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To the Editor .—I was pleased to read that Dr Dobie has explored electrical tinnitus suppression, as reported in the July 1986 issue of theArchives, 1 but his success rate was extremely poor and
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