Bending of nanoscale ultrathin substrates by growth of strained thin films and islands

Abstract

Mechanical bending is ubiquitous in heteroepitaxial growth of thin films where the strained growing film applies effectively an “external” stress to bend the substrate. Conventionally, when the deposited film is much thinner than the substrate, the bending increases linearly with increasing film thickness following the classical Stoney formula. Here we… (More)

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