Beiruti linguistic landscape: an analysis of private store fronts

  title={Beiruti linguistic landscape: an analysis of private store fronts},
  author={Fares J. Karam and Amber N. Warren and Amanda K. Kibler and Zinnia Shweiry},
  journal={International Journal of Multilingualism},
  pages={196 - 214}
ABSTRACT After the end of the civil war in 1990, a major reconstruction effort was underway in Beirut, the capital of Lebanon. With reconstruction came significant changes to the city’s landscape and identity. Adopting a linguistic landscape (LL) lens, this study aims at better understanding these changes by asking what languages are used on the store fronts of three Beiruti streets, and how the three linguistic landscapes are the same or different considering that two of the streets (Weygand… 
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