Behavioural and hormonal effects of social isolation and neophobia in a gregarious bird species, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

@article{Apfelbeck2008BehaviouralAH,
  title={Behavioural and hormonal effects of social isolation and neophobia in a gregarious bird species, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)},
  author={Beate Apfelbeck and Michael Raess},
  journal={Hormones and Behavior},
  year={2008},
  volume={54},
  pages={435-441}
}

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Male starlings in breeding condition, therefore, demonstrate an increased sensitivity to additional conspecifics, suggesting that a higher tolerance for intrusion may facilitate flocking behavior, while a lower tolerance may aid in territoriality.
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Although flock size was influenced by both season and habitat, it varied relatively less within seasons (across habitats); however, for starlings the activities associated with seasonal events of the annual cycle were a major influence on patterns of social foraging.
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