Behaviour of Condensed Helium near Absolute Zero

  title={Behaviour of Condensed Helium near Absolute Zero},
  author={Franz Eugen Simon},
  • F. Simon
  • Published 1 April 1934
  • Geology, Physics
  • Nature
THE recently published measurements1 on some properties of condensed helium, in conjunction with the facts known from the work of Keesom and his co-workers2, allow us to draw some conclusions on the behaviour of helium at very low temperatures. 
The thermal conductivity of condensed helium
At low temperatures the thermal conductivity of a condensed phase is very sensitive to structure, and the various phases of condensed helium exhibit a wide range of behavior. The two stable isotopes,
The viscosity of liquid helium between 2 and 5° K
  • R. BowersK. Mendelssohn
  • Physics
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1950
The viscosity of liquid helium has been measured with a flow method between 2 and 5° K . The coefficient of viscosity decreases with decreasing temperature over the whole range. A particularly
Density and Compressibility of Solid Hydrogen and Deuterium at 4·2° K.
IT has been shown by Bennewitz and Simon1 that the influence of zero-point energy on the properties of a condensed substance is very great for substances of low boiling point. The effect is most
XC. The influence of zero-point energy on the thermodynamic properties of the low boiling point elements
Abstract The internal energy and molar volume at absolute zero and the characteristic temperature of the inert gas solids, together with solid hydrogen and deuterium, are calculated taking account of
XLIII. The ideal crystal at absolute zero
Abstract Theoretical expressions for the internal energy, equilibrium volume, and elastic constants of the rare gas solids at absolute zero are derived, using a recently proposed approximation for
A discussion of the thermal expansion and conductivity in liquid helium II
  • H. Jones
  • Physics
    Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 1938
The negative coefficient of thermal expansion of He ii is shown to be a consequence of the disordering process which takes place as the temperature rises. The conclusion is reached that the thermal
The Thermodynamic properties of solid and fluid helium-3 and helium-4 above 3 °K at high densities
  • J. DugdaleJ. P. Franck
  • Physics
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1964
Measurements have been made of the specific heat at constant volume of solid 3He from 3 K up to the melting point at a number of different densities corresponding to pressures up to 2000 atm. The
The Liquid State at the Absolute Zero and the Third Law of Thermodynamics
The thermodynamical requirements for the existence of the liquid state at the absolute zero are examined generally and various possibilities for the thermodynamic behaviour of the helium isotope of mass 3 in the liquidstate are examined.
Helium at elevated pressures: Quantum liquid with non-static shear rigidity
The properties of liquid helium have always been a fascinating subject to scientists. The phonon theory of liquids, taking into account liquid non-static shear rigidity, is employed here for studying


Some Thermal Properties of Condensed Helium
IN the following communication we give the results of some preliminary measurements with condensed helium:
Zum Prinzip von der Unerreichbarkeit des absoluten Nullpunktes
ZusammenfassungEs wird gezeigt, daß auch mit Hilfe derjenigen gehemmten Systeme, für die die Entropieunterschiede am absoluten Nullpunkt nicht verschwinden, eine Erreichung des absoluten Nullpunktes
Zur Frage der Nullpunktsenergie
Die Existenz einer Nullpunktsenergie hat sich bis jotzt trotz mehrfacher Versuehe nieht einwandfrei erbringen lessen. In folgendem sell ein weiterer Beitrag znr Kl~irung dieser Frage geliefert