Behavioral observations of sleep and anesthesia in the dolphin: implications for bispectral index monitoring of unihemispheric effects in dolphins.

@article{McCormick2007BehavioralOO,
  title={Behavioral observations of sleep and anesthesia in the dolphin: implications for bispectral index monitoring of unihemispheric effects in dolphins.},
  author={James G. McCormick},
  journal={Anesthesia and analgesia},
  year={2007},
  volume={104 1},
  pages={
          239-41
        }
}
To the Editor: Howard et al. (1) are to be complimented on their article “Bispectral Index Monitoring of Unihemispheric Effects in Dolphins.” They present a humane nonsurgical method for study of unihemispheric bispectral index (BIS) readings in nonmedicated dolphins and in dolphins given propofol, atropine, and/or diazepam. The dolphins they studied were Tursiops truncatus. This dolphin has a brain on average slightly larger than the brain of humans (2), providing an interesting comparative… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

History of the Development of Anesthesia for the Dolphin: A Quest to Study a Brain as Large as Man's.

Dolphin anesthesia involves a complex matter of unique neural control, airway anatomy, neuromuscular control of respiration, and sleep behavior, which facilitates the dolphin's amazing echolocation capability.

Cetacean sleep: An unusual form of mammalian sleep

Dolphins maintain cognitive performance during 72 to 120 hours of continuous auditory vigilance

Two adult bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), NAY and SAY, maintained a very high detection rate of random 1.5 s goal tones infrequently substituted in a background of frequent 0.5S equal-amplitude tones over continuous 72 or 120 h sessions.

On doing two things at once: dolphin brain and nose coordinate sonar clicks, buzzes and emotional squeals with social sounds during fish capture

This study is the first to match sound and video from the dolphin with sound andvideo from near the fish, and suggests that the two dolphin brain hemispheres may also act independently in communication.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 10 REFERENCES

Bispectral Index Monitoring of Unihemispheric Effects in Dolphins

It is demonstrated that the bispectral index (BIS) monitor can detect interhemispheric asymmetry in the dolphin species Tursiops truncatus, which may provide an animal model for study of unihemispherical effects in humans.

Relationship of sleep, respiration, and anesthesia in the porpoise: a preliminary report.

  • J. G. McCormick
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1969
The porpoise, an air-breathing mammal whose habits are entirely aquatic, presents special problems of respiration, sleep, and anesthesia. These problems have been studied in three species, Tursiops

Asymmetry and Symmetry in Brain Waves from Dolphin Left and Right Hemispheres: Some Observations after Anesthesia, during Quiescent Hanging Behavior, and during Visual Obstruction

  • S. Ridgway
  • Biology, Psychology
    Brain, Behavior and Evolution
  • 2002
The EEG appeared relatively desynchronized and symmetrical between the two hemispheres when the animal was awake during recovery from pentothal-halothane anesthesia as well as during waking periods when one or both of the animal’s eyes were covered by an opaque rubber suction cup.

Etomidate Versus Propofol for Electroconvulsive Therapy in Patients With Schizophrenia

Propofol was found to reduce seizure duration to a significantly greater extent than etomidate, and in electrophysiological parameters that show a correlation with clinical efficacy, there was no significant difference found between the 2 anesthetics.

Brain-spinal cord ratios in porpoises: Possible correlations with intelligence and ecology

As a rough measure of intelligence, brain weight: cord weight ratios in small delphinids compared favorably with, but were slightly less than, this ratio in man. Not all delphinids studied were found

Anesthetization of Porpoises for Major Surgery

Halothane was shown to be a suitable anesthetic for major surgery while nitrous oxide was found to be inadequate and sodium thiopental administered intravenously was successfully used to facilitate intubation procedures, eliminating the need to intubate awake porpoises.

INTRAVASCULAR PLACEMENT OF EPIDURAL CATHETERS

Occult catheterization of the epidural veins may account for a significant number of failures in continuous epidural anesthesia.

Accidental epidural administration of succinylcholine.

A prolonged onset and a longer duration of neuromuscular blockade were observed compared with IV administration and no neurological or cardiovascular side effects or other symptoms of local or systemic toxicity were observed.