Behavioral evidence of the role of lumbosacral anatomical specializations in pigeons in maintaining balance during terrestrial locomotion

  title={Behavioral evidence of the role of lumbosacral anatomical specializations in pigeons in maintaining balance during terrestrial locomotion},
  author={Reinhold Necker and A Janssen and T. Beissenhirtz},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Physiology A},
Abstract In birds there are anatomical specializations in the lumbosacral vertebrae and spinal cord. These include segmentally organized bony canals which are related to accessory lobes of the spinal cord. Both structures are connected by cerebrospinal fluid. To test whether these specializations function as a sense organ of equilibrium the effect of opening the fluid space was studied in pigeons. Locomotory behaviors on the ground (landing on a perch, keeping balance on a rotating perch… 
Specializations in the lumbosacral vertebral canal and spinal cord of birds: evidence of a function as a sense organ which is involved in the control of walking
  • R. Necker
  • Biology
    Journal of Comparative Physiology A
  • 2006
Birds have two nearly independent kinds of locomotion and it is suggested that two different sense organs play an important role in their respective control: the vestibular organ during flight and the lumbosacral system during walking.
The Balance Hypothesis for the Avian Lumbosacral Organ and an Exploration of Its Morphological Variation
It is found that birds that perch tend to have more prominent transverse canals, suggesting that the LSO is useful for balance-intensive behaviors, and some key questions need to be asked to advance the understanding of this fascinating and mysterious part of the bird spinal cord.
The structure and development of avian lumbosacral specializations of the vertebral canal and the spinal cord with special reference to a possible function as a sense organ of equilibrium
The adult-like organization in the newly hatched chickens, which walk around immediately after hatching, supports the assumed function as a sense organ involved in the control of locomotion on the ground.
3D Anatomy of the Quail Lumbosacral Spinal Canal—Implications for Putative Mechanosensory Function
3D anatomy of the lumbosacral region of the common quail is quantified, focusing on establishing the geometric and biomechanical properties relevant to potential mechanosensing functions, and the structure of the LSO is reminiscent of a mass-spring-based accelerometer.
Ultrastructural characterization of the accessory lobes of Lachi in the lumbosacral spinal cord of the pigeon with special reference to intrinsic mechanoreceptors
A complete analysis of the structural basis of segmentally organized accessory lobes in the lumbosacral spinal cord of birds was performed by means of electron microscopy, finding that Glycogen cells and lacunae may contribute to transmission of hydrostatic pressure changes during movements of the body.
Sciatic nerve conduction velocity and locomotory patterns in Frog, Uromastix and Rabbit.
The differences in NCV among Frog, Uromastix and Rabbit’s sciatic nerves reflect differences in these animals for their sciatic nerve diameter, leg architecture, gait and locomotion, as per their habitat.
Head bobbing and the movement of the centre of gravity in walking pigeons ( Columba livia )
It was ascertained that the head thrust observed in the double support phase helps to shift the centre of gravity over the supporting foot around the beginning of the single support phase, but its effect was very small and the hold phase showed correlation with the COG positioning over the Supporting foot in the singleSupport phase.
The avian somatosensory system
  • J. Wild
  • Biology
    Sturkie's Avian Physiology
  • 2022
Neuromuscular mechanisms of an elaborate wing display in the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus)
The main skeletal muscles associated with the production of an elaborate gestural courtship display in a tropical bird, the golden-collared manakin, are pinpointed with transmitter-aided EMG techniques.


Specializations in the lumbosacral spinal cord of birds: morphological and behavioural evidence for a sense of equilibrium.
  • R. Necker
  • Biology
    European journal of morphology
  • 1999
In the present investigation additional morphological specializations are described for the pigeon, which consist of segmentally organized semicircular canal-like structures which together with specializations in the meninges of the spinal Cord form a large liquor space above accessory lobes attached to the spinal cord.
Projections of the marginal nuclei in the spinal cord of the pigeon
  • R. Necker
  • Biology
    The Journal of comparative neurology
  • 1997
In the avian spinal cord, there are several groups of neurons lying outside the central gray substance that protrude into the vertebral canal to form accessory lobes, and the possible role of marginal nuclei in sensorimotor circuits is discussed.
It is suggested that head-bobbing has the dual function of amplifying relative motion in the retinal image during the thrust phase, making the detection of food objects more likely, while allowing detection of object motion during the hold phase.
The Analysis of Motion in the Visual Systems of Birds
It is the task of the visual system to segregate or parse these various patterns of motion into the appropriate events that gave rise to them, and integrate them with other visual features, so that ultimately the bird may respond with behaviour that is appropriate for the situation.
The Central Nervous System
The evolution of Nervous Control from Primitive Organisms to Man and its role in the development of Man is illustrated.
Handbook of Avian Anatomy: Nomina Anatomica Avium
Basic control patterns of orientational homeostasis.
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  • Psychology
    Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology
  • 1964
Perception and Motor Control in Birds
Ort und Art der extravestibulaÈ ren Rezeptoren zur Wahrnehmung der Richtung der Schwerkraft bei der Taube (Columba livia, Gmel. 1789)
  • 1995