Behavioral and physiological effects of deep pressure on children with autism: a pilot study evaluating the efficacy of Grandin's Hug Machine.

@article{Edelson1999BehavioralAP,
  title={Behavioral and physiological effects of deep pressure on children with autism: a pilot study evaluating the efficacy of Grandin's Hug Machine.},
  author={Stephen M Edelson and Meredyth Goldberg Edelson and Danni Kerr and Temple Grandin},
  journal={The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association},
  year={1999},
  volume={53 2},
  pages={
          145-52
        }
}
  • S. Edelson, M. G. Edelson, T. Grandin
  • Published 1 March 1999
  • Psychology
  • The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
OBJECTIVE One symptom common to many persons with autism is a high arousal or anxiety level. This study investigated the effects of deep pressure on arousal and anxiety reduction in autism with Grandin's Hug Machine, a device that allows self-administration of lateral body pressure. METHOD Twelve children with autism were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (receiving deep pressure) or a placebo group (not receiving deep pressure but in the disengaged Hug Machine). All children… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Effect of Short-Term Deep-Pressure Portable Seat on Behavioral and Biological Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study
TLDR
Autism hug machine portable seat (AHMPS) inflatable wrap is an effective method to reduce emotional arousal and neurobiological stress was reduced in children who were wearing the AHMPS inflatable Wrap.
The Immediate Effects of Deep Pressure on Young People with Autism and Severe Intellectual Difficulties: Demonstrating Individual Differences
TLDR
Deep pressure appears to be of immediate benefit to this population with autism and severe ID, but the heterogeneity of response suggests that careful monitoring of response should be used and deep pressure discontinued when it is no longer of benefit.
Physiological Effect of Deep Pressure in Reducing Anxiety of Children with ASD during Traveling: A Public Transportation Setting
TLDR
The deep pressure of the AHMPS inflating wrap decreases physiological arousal in children with ASD during traveling, and this effect is found to be better in group I than in group II.
The clinical application of deep touch pressure with a man with autism presenting with severe anxiety and challenging behaviour
TLDR
A ‘‘low tech’’ approach to the systematic use of deep touch pressure within a structured programme for a man with autism who was presenting with severe challenging behaviour led to significant reductions in the use of both physical restraint and medication, as well as appropriate physiological changes, with a parallel increase in the person's quality of life.
Effects of a weighted vest on attention to task and self-stimulatory behaviors in preschoolers with pervasive developmental disorders.
TLDR
The findings suggest that for these 5 children with PDD, the use of a weighted vest resulted in an increase in attention to task and decrease in self-stimulatory behaviors.
The Subjective Comfort Test of Autism Hug Machine Portable Seat
TLDR
The AHMPS inflatable wrap decreases physiological arousal in children with ASD, according to a preliminary study investigating the mean comfortable deep pressure of Autism Hug Machine Portable Seat and inflatable wraps.
Sensory Processing, Physiological Stress, and Sleep Behaviors in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders
TLDR
Examination of the relationship between physiologic responses to sensation and sleep in children with and without autism spectrum disorders confirmed that children with ASD have a higher prevalence of atypical sensory behaviors and sleep disturbances than typical children.
Physiological and Behavioral Stress and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Routine Oral Care
TLDR
Novel strategies may be required to decrease behavioral and physiological distress in children with ASD in the dental clinic during routine oral care and examined factors associated with this distress.
THE COMFORTING AND CALMING EFFECT OF DEEP TOUCH PRESSURE THERAPY IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM
TLDR
Deep Touch Pressure (DTP) Therapy is frequently used as an intervention for Autism and several studies have demonstrated DTP's effectiveness.
Effects of deep pressure stimulation on physiological arousal.
  • S. Reynolds, S. Lane, Brian Mullen
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
  • 2015
TLDR
It is concluded that deep pressure stimulation is capable of eliciting changes in autonomic arousal and may be a useful modality in diagnostic groups seen by occupational therapy practitioners.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 39 REFERENCES
The effects of deep pressure touch on anxiety.
  • K. Krauss
  • Psychology
    The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
  • 1987
TLDR
Although the group as a whole did not relax significantly more under experimental conditions than under control conditions, the degree of subjective relaxation was greater in the experimental group, and results were encouraging.
Calming effects of deep touch pressure in patients with autistic disorder, college students, and animals.
  • T. Grandin
  • Psychology
    Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology
  • 1992
TLDR
There are increasing anecdotal reports of the clinical value of the squeeze machine, including suggestions that it can be used to reduce required doses of psychostimulant medications, and a review of the animal literature reveals that animals have similar calming reactions, and also suggests possible additional physiological effects of deep touch pressure.
Brief Report: Autistic Children's Attentiveness and Responsivity Improve After Touch Therapy
TLDR
The effects of touch therapy on three problems commonly associated with autism including inattentiveness (off-task behavior), touch aversion, and withdrawal are investigated.
The effects of deep pressure on self-stimulating behaviors in a child with autism and other disabilities.
  • L. Zissermann
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
  • 1992
The American journal 0/ Occupational Therapl' ThiS case report describes the effects of deeppressure tactile stimulation in reducing self-stimulating behaviors in a child with multiple disabilities
Cardiovascular and electrodermal responses to simple stimuli in autistic, retarded and normal children.
  • A. L. James, R. Barry
  • Psychology, Medicine
    International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology
  • 1984
The effects of sensory stimulatory treatment on an autistic child.
  • M. McClure, M. Holtz-Yotz
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
  • 1991
This article was acceptedfor publication October 1, 1990. Occupational therapy has greatly increased the medical profession's awareness of sensory in­ put and its effect on motor output, based on the
Hyper-responsivity to touch and vestibular stimuli as a predictor of positive response to sensory integration procedures by autistic children.
  • A. Ayres, L. S. Tickle
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
  • 1980
TLDR
Results suggest that children who registered sensory input but failed to modulate it responded better to therapy than those who were hypo-responsive or failed to orient to sensory input.
Hyper-responsivity to touch and vestibular stimuli as a predictor of positive response to sensory integration procedures by autistic children.
TLDR
Results suggest that children who registered sensory input but failed to modulate it responded better to therapy than those who were hypo-responsive or failed to orient to sensory input.
Electrodermal and cardiac responses of schizophrenic children to sensory stimuli.
TLDR
The schizophrenics showed a relationship between GSR magnitude and tone intensity that was similar to the normals' physiological tracking of changing intensity, and the normal children showed no differences in habituation or reinstatement to the novel stimulus.
Abnormal visual event-related potentials of autistic children
TLDR
Autistic children had, in contrast with normal control groups, smaller P3 waves (occipital maximum) to visual target stimuli but did not differ in this respect from the two psychiatric control groups.
...
...