Behavioral, physiological, and endocrine responses of starlings to acute increases in density.

@article{Nephew2003BehavioralPA,
  title={Behavioral, physiological, and endocrine responses of starlings to acute increases in density.},
  author={Benjamin C. Nephew and L. Michael Romero},
  journal={Hormones and behavior},
  year={2003},
  volume={44 3},
  pages={222-32}
}
One potential stressor to vertebrates both in the wild and in captivity is the presence of numerous individuals in a confined space. To examine the effects of increased conspecific density in birds, we simultaneously measured cardiac, behavioral, and endocrine responses of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to acute crowding. A cage containing a resident bird was outfitted with a trap door that allowed for the introduction of intruder birds (one, three, or five birds) without human… CONTINUE READING