Behavior of cattle during hot-iron and freeze branding and the effects on subsequent handling ease.

@article{SchwartzkopfGenswein1997BehaviorOC,
  title={Behavior of cattle during hot-iron and freeze branding and the effects on subsequent handling ease.},
  author={Karen S. Schwartzkopf-Genswein and Joseph M. Stookey and R Welford},
  journal={Journal of animal science},
  year={1997},
  volume={75 8},
  pages={
          2064-72
        }
}
Three hundred feedlot steers (320 +/- 2 kg) were assigned to freeze brand, hot-iron brand, and sham branding treatments according to a randomized branding arrangement. Behaviors believed to be indicative of pain (i.e., tail-flicking, kicking, falling, and vocalizing) were recorded during branding. Escape behavior, measured as the amount and duration of force exerted on the headgate and squeeze chute by the animals during treatment, was obtained using load cells and strain gauges. Subsequent… 
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The greater escape-avoidance reaction as well as the elevated heart rate and plasma epinephrine concentration of the H calves indicate that a greater pain sensation is perceived by hot-iron branded Angus cattle.
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