Beginnings of microbiology and biochemistry: the contribution of yeast research.

@article{Barnett2003BeginningsOM,
  title={Beginnings of microbiology and biochemistry: the contribution of yeast research.},
  author={James A. Barnett},
  journal={Microbiology},
  year={2003},
  volume={149 Pt 3},
  pages={
          557-67
        }
}
With improvements in microscopes early in the nineteenth century, yeasts were seen to be living organisms, although some famous scientists ridiculed the idea and their influence held back the development of microbiology. In the 1850s and 1860s, yeasts were established as microbes and responsible for alcoholic fermentation, and this led to the study of the rôle of bacteria in lactic and other fermentations, as well as bacterial pathogenicity. At this time, there were difficulties in… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Introduction to Carbon Metabolism in Yeast
TLDR
This chapter reviews the basic facts on yeast carbon metabolism and especially on alcoholic fermentation and introduces the corresponding genes, enzymes, metabolic pathways and regulatory networks, and explains the basic physiological phenomena observed in different yeasts.
Taxonomy of Brewing and Distilling Yeasts and Methods of Identification
TLDR
A large number of studies have been conducted to characterize different types of industrial yeast strains, and the isolation and characterization of Saccharomyces eubayanus has been discussed.
Genetic, Physiological, and Industrial Aspects of the Fructophilic Non-Saccharomyces Yeast Species, Starmerella bacillaris
TLDR
Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina) is a non-Saccharomyces yeast species, frequently found in enological ecosystems, and its genetics and metabolism have recently been explored.
Progress in Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • E. Nevoigt
  • Biology, Engineering
    Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews
  • 2008
TLDR
The current review discusses the relevance of several engineering strategies, such as rational and inverse metabolic engineering, evolutionary engineering, and global transcription machinery engineering, in yeast strain improvement and summarizes existing tools for fine-tuning and regulating enzyme activities and thus metabolic pathways.
The yin and yang of yeast: biodiversity research and systems biology as complementary forces driving innovation in biotechnology
TLDR
The history that has led to these apparently simple organisms being employed in such a broad range of commercial applications is summarized and the likely consequences of current yeast research for the future of biotechnological innovation are discussed.
Improvement of Saccharomyces yeast strains used in brewing, wine making and baking.
TLDR
This review highlights the achievements in genetic engineering of Saccharomyces yeast strains applied in food and beverage industry.
Carbohydrate Metabolism in Wine Yeasts
TLDR
The current view on how hexose transport and hexose phosphorylation are especially adapted to the environments encountered during wine production is presented and the three major signaling pathways governing the response to sugar availability are explained.
Systems biology of industrial microorganisms.
TLDR
The term Industrial Systems Biology is proposed for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.
Did van Leeuwenhoek Observe Yeast Cells in 1680
TLDR
In attempting to answer this question, some fundamental work on yeast by Charles Cagnard-Latour (1777–1859) published in 1838 is described, which tells us of the beer brewing and wine making state of the art around that time.
Membrane Transport in Yeast, An Introduction.
TLDR
This book is based on the experience of several experts summarizing the current knowledge about important substrate transport processes in yeast and provides both a general overview of the main transport characteristics of a specific substrates and the unique details that only an expert working in the field is able to transmit to the reader.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 94 REFERENCES
A history of research on yeasts 3: Emil Fischer, Eduard Buchner and their contemporaries, 1880–1900
Through the discovery of Buchner, Biology was relieved of another fragment of mysticism. The splitting up of sugar into CO2 and alcohol is no more the effect of a "vital principle" than the splitting
A history of research on yeasts 2: Louis Pasteur and his contemporaries, 1850–1880
TLDR
Pasteur's passage from chemistry to microbiology and the problem of distinguishing between activities of whole organisms and of enzymes are explored.
The History of Cell Respiration and Cytochrome
  • S. Goldhor
  • History
    The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
  • 1966
TLDR
The history of cell respiration from Galen and Harvey, Lavoisier and Pasteur, to the now classic but then misunderstood work of MacMunn, and from Keilin's own early work through to the comparatively recent discoveries of the properties and structure of cytochromes is an intensely personal history.
Mikroskopische Üntersuchungen über die Übereinstimmung in der Struktur und dem Wachstume der Tiere und Pflanzen
TLDR
This famous memoir by a distinguished pupil of Johannes Müller converted histology into a rational branch of science and founded the cell-theory upon which modern physiology and pathology are based.
Some aspects of cell division in saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  • A. Barton
  • Biology
    Journal of general microbiology
  • 1950
SUMMARY: Two types of scar are formed on yeast cells as a result of the division process: a single ‘birth scar’ marking the point at which the cell was joined to the parent, and a variable number of
Application of a Theory of Enzyme Specificity to Protein Synthesis.
  • D. Koshland
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1958
TLDR
The suggestion of Lipmann' that the energy required to drive this reaction to the right came from adenosine triphosphate has been supported by the extensive work and an analysis of why this linking of amino acids presents such formidable difficulties is revealing.
Lois générales de l'Action des Diastases
AFTER a general introduction on catalysis and a classification of catalysers, the author gives a historical account of the work already done on the action of diastases. Then follows a description of
Wöhler's ‘Synthetic’ Urea and the Rejection of Vitalism: A Chemical Legend
THAT Wöhler synthetized urea in 1828 and there by rang the death-knell of vitalism in organic chemistry seems to be as firmly established a legend as that Galileo let fall at one and the same time
The history of bacteriology.
  • C. Browning
  • Medicine
    Surgo; Glasgow University medical journal
  • 1947
TLDR
It's coming again, the new collection that this site has, and the favorite the history of bacteriology book is offered as the choice today.
A history of research on yeasts 4: cytology part II, 1950–1990
TLDR
In conclusion, the role of mitochondria in cell cycle and morphogenesis and its role in human health and disease are still under investigation.
...
...