Before programs: the physical origination of multicellular forms.

  title={Before programs: the physical origination of multicellular forms.},
  author={Stuart A. Newman and Gabor Forgacs and Gerd B. Muller},
  journal={The International journal of developmental biology},
  volume={50 2-3},
By examining the formative role of physical processes in modern-day developmental systems, we infer that although such determinants are subject to constraints and rarely act in a "pure" fashion, they are identical to processes generic to all viscoelastic, chemically excitable media, non-living as well as living. The processes considered are free diffusion, immiscible liquid behavior, oscillation and multistability of chemical state, reaction-diffusion coupling and mechanochemical responsivity… 

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