Before and after borders: The nomadic challenge to sovereign territoriality

@article{MacKay2014BeforeAA,
  title={Before and after borders: The nomadic challenge to sovereign territoriality},
  author={Joseph MacKay and Jamie Levin and Gustavo Dambiski Gomes de Carvalho and Kristin Cavoukian and Ross N. Cuthbert},
  journal={International Politics},
  year={2014},
  volume={51},
  pages={101-123}
}
Although non-state actors have recently proliferated, many predate the modern state system itself. Among these, traditional nomads uniquely challenge sovereignty. Nomadism undermines states’ capacity to tax, conscript and otherwise regulate population. However, nomadism constitutes an ideational as well as material threat to states. By disrupting states’ territorial configuration, nomadism undermines the ideational foundations of statehood. States have responded to nomadism in three ways. Many… 
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