Becoming famous without being recognized: Unconscious influences of memory produced by dividing attention

  title={Becoming famous without being recognized: Unconscious influences of memory produced by dividing attention},
  author={Larry L. Jacoby and Vera E. Woloshyn and Colleen M. Kelley},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Psychology: General},
The familiarity of names produced by their prior presentation can be misinterprete d as fame. We used this false fame effect to separately study the effects of divided attention on familiarity versus conscious recollection. In a first experiment, famous and nonfamous names were presented to be read under conditions of full vs. divided attention. Divided attention greatly reduced later recognition memory performance but had no effect on gains in familiarity as measured by fame judgments. In… 

Tables from this paper

Attributions of familiarity in amnesia: Evidence from a fame judgment task.

To evaluate the extent to which amnesic patients can attribute the source of familiarity to its correct source during a fame judgment task, we placed gains in familiarity in opposition to conscious

Implicit /explicit memory versus analytic/nonanalytic processing: Rethinking the mere exposure effect

It is suggested that when study opportunities are minimal and test items are perceptually similar, people adopt an analytic approach, attempting to recognize distinctive features, but that that strategy fails because rapid presentation prevents effective encoding of such features; it also prevents people from experiencing fluency and a consequent feeling of familiarity.

Becoming Famous Overnight: Limits on the Ability to Avoid Unconscious Influences of the Past

Nonfamous names presented once in an experiment are mistakenly judged as famous 24 hr later. On an immediate test, no such false fame occurs. This phenomenon parallels the sleeper effect found in

Attention and recollective experience in recognition memory

Findings are interpreted as providing further support for the idea that recognition memory entails two distinct components, one based on associative and contextual information, the other based on a “traceless” awareness of familiarity.

The effects of age and divided attention on spontaneous recognition

Across two experiments, older adults and younger adults placed under divided-attention showed a greater tendency to spontaneously recognize old distracters as compared to full-att attention younger adults.

Conceptual automaticity in recognition memory: levels-of-processing effects on familiarity.

  • J. Toth
  • Psychology
    Canadian journal of experimental psychology = Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale
  • 1996
Three experiments show that familiarity can also arise from prior conceptual (meaning-based) processing, and estimates of recollection, but not familiarity, were affected by response-signal delay, suggesting functional independence between the two processes.

The role of familiarity in implicit memory effects: the case of exemplar activation

The present study investigates how person-based representations stored in memory can influence subsequent information processing, depending upon subjective states during recollection of those

Illusions of face memory : Clarity breeds familiarity q

When people perform a recognition memory task, they may avail themselves of different forms of information. For example, they may recall specific learning episodes, or rely on general feelings of

Remembering and knowing: Two means of access to the personal past

The nature of recollective experience was examined in a recognition memory task, and data support the two-factor theories of recognition memory by dissociating two forms of recognition, and shed light on the nature of conscious recollection.

Illusions of face memory: Clarity breeds familiarity.




Unconscious Influences of Memory for a Prior Event

This work presents experiments in which memory used as a tool enhances perception, lowers the subjective experience of background noise, increases the fame of nonfamous names, and lowers estimates of the difficulty of anagrams.

On the relationship between autobiographical memory and perceptual learning.

The experiments that are reported were designed to explore the relationship between the more aware autobiographical form of memory that is measured by a recognition memory test and the less aware form ofMemory that is expressed in perceptual learning.

The recovery of incidentally acquired information

Recognizing: The judgment of previous occurrence.

Several suggestions for a class of theories of recognition memory have been proposed during the past decade. These models address predictions about judgments of prior occurrence of an event, not the

A direct comparison of recognition failure rates for recallable names in episodic and semanticmemory tests

The Tulving-Wiseman (1975) function accurately predicted recognition failure rates for famous surnames, whether or not they were from the study list and whether the test was episodic or semantic, and for targets from the weakly relatedword pairs.

Nonanalytic Cognition: Memory, Perception, and Concept Learning

Effects of aging on source monitoring: differences in susceptibility to false fame.

Elderly subjects most prone to making familiarity errors recalled fewer items on a verbal learning task and were less likely to chunk information into semantic categories as it was recalled, suggesting that a decline in the tendency to spontaneously organize and integrate information underlies the poor source monitoring observed.

Memory influences subjective experience: Noise judgments.

The influence of memory on the subjective experience of later events was investigated in two experiments. In one experiment, previously heard sentences and new sentences were presented against a

Memory as a function of attention, level of processing, and automatization.

  • A. FiskW. Schneider
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 1984
The relationships between long-term memory (LTM) modification, attentional allocation, and type of processing are examined and results disconfirm the Hasher and Zacks (1979) "automatic encoding" proposal regarding the nature of processing.

Measures of Memory

ionist Positions Abstractionist positions view implicit memory as reflecting modification of the state of abstract lexical, semantic, or procedural knowledge structures; byionist positions view