Bayesian methods for meta-analysis of causal relationships estimated using genetic instrumental variables.

  title={Bayesian methods for meta-analysis of causal relationships estimated using genetic instrumental variables.},
  author={Stephen Burgess and Simon Giles Thompson and Glenda Andrews and Nilesh J. Samani and Aric C. Hall and Peter Whincup and Richard Morris and Debbie A Lawlor and George Davey Smith and Nicholas J. Timpson and Shaban Ebrahim and Y Ben-Shlomo and Miranda Brown and Sally L Ricketts and Manjinder S. Sandhu and Angelika Reiner and Bruce M. Psaty and Leonie Lange and Mary Cushman and J Hung and Peter Thompson and Justin Beilby and Nicole V. Warrington and L J Palmer and B\orge G. Nordestgaard and Anne Tybjaerg-Hansen and Jeppe Zacho and C Wu and Gregg Lowe and Ioanna Tzoulaki and Meena Kumari and Jennifer F. Yamamoto and Barbara Chiodini and M G Franzosi and Graeme J. Hankey and Konrad Jamrozik and Eric B. Rimm and Janise Dal Pai and Scott Heckbert and J Bis and Sathyanarayan Anand and J{\"u}rgen Engert and Reanna Collins and Robert Clarke and Ola Melander and G{\"o}ran GB Berglund and Per Ladenvall and Linda Johansson and Johannes Jansson and G{\"o}ran Hallmans and Anurag G. Hingorani and S. Humphries and Jeanne Meghan Manson and H. V. Watkins and Jemma C. Hopewell and Danish Saleheen and R Frossard and John Danesh and Naveed 4 Sattar and Martin E. Robertson and Jonathan Shepherd and Ethan I. Schaefer and Albert Hofman and Jacqueline C. M. Witteman and Isabella Kardys and Ulf H de Faire and Andrew J Bennet and Ian Ford Ford and Chris Packard and Juan P. Casas and Liam Smeeth and Frances Wensley and J. H. Bowden and Emanuele Di Angelantonio and Ping Gao and Twisha Shah and Claudio J. Verzilli and Mac Walker and Joanne Whittaker},
  journal={Statistics in medicine},
  volume={29 12},
Genetic markers can be used as instrumental variables, in an analogous way to randomization in a clinical trial, to estimate the causal relationship between a phenotype and an outcome variable. Our purpose is to extend the existing methods for such Mendelian randomization studies to the context of multiple genetic markers measured in multiple studies, based on the analysis of individual participant data. First, for a single genetic marker in one study, we show that the usual ratio of… CONTINUE READING
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