Bats, balls, and substitution sensitivity: cognitive misers are no happy fools

@article{Neys2013BatsBA,
  title={Bats, balls, and substitution sensitivity: cognitive misers are no happy fools},
  author={Wim De Neys and Sandrine Rossi and Olivier Houd{\'e}},
  journal={Psychonomic Bulletin \& Review},
  year={2013},
  volume={20},
  pages={269-273}
}
Influential work on human thinking suggests that our judgment is often biased because we minimize cognitive effort and intuitively substitute hard questions by easier ones. A key question is whether or not people realize that they are doing this and notice their mistake. Here, we test this claim with one of the most publicized examples of the substitution bias, the bat-and-ball problem. We designed an isomorphic control version in which reasoners experience no intuitive pull to substitute… 

The Doubting System 1: Evidence for automatic substitution sensitivity.

Substitution Sensitivity and the Bat-and-Ball Problem: A Direct Replication of De Neys et al. (2013)

Background: Cognitive misers are no happy fools. Earlier findings (1) came to this conclusion by assessing people’s sensitivity to attribute substitution, which they defined as the situation that

When intuitions are helpful: Prior beliefs can support reasoning in the bat-and-ball problem

Intuitions are often considered suboptimal because they can bias people's thinking. The bat-and-ball problem is a celebrated example of this potentially detrimental aspect of intuitions since it

Exploring the determinants of confidence in the bat-and-ball problem.

Acquiescing to intuition: Believing what we know isn't so

When people identify an error in their initial judgment, they typically try to correct it. But, in some cases, they choose not to—even when they know, in the moment, that they are being irrational or

Do we de-bias ourselves?: The impact of repeated presentation on the bat-and-ball problem

The notorious bat-and-ball problem has long been used to demonstrate that people are easily biased by their intuitions. In this paper we test the robustness of biased responding by examining how it

The Empirical Case for Acquiescing to Intuition

This work provides clear empirical support for acquiescence: People can have a faulty intuitive belief about the world, acknowledge the belief is irrational, but follow their intuition nonetheless—even at a cost.

The Bat-and-Ball Problem: Stronger evidence in support of a conscious error process.

Incorrect reasoners' intra- individual error sensitivity was replicated and extended via the introduction of a social-metacognitive measurement, which was found to be correlated with intra-individual post-decision confidence and also yielded an error sensitivity effect.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 28 REFERENCES

Representativeness revisited: Attribute substitution in intuitive judgment.

The program of research now known as the heuristics and biases approach began with a survey of 84 participants at the 1969 meetings of the Mathematical Psychology Society and the American

Thinking, Fast and Slow

Daniel Kahneman, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his seminal work in psychology challenging the rational model of judgment and decision making, is one of the world's most

Intuition, reason, and metacognition

Intuition and Reasoning: A Dual-Process Perspective

A lay definition of intuition holds that it involves immediate apprehension in the absence of reasoning. From a more technical point of view, I argue also that intuition should be seen as the

Analytic thinking: do you feel like it?

A major challenge for Dual Process Theories of reasoning is to predict the circumstances under which intuitive answers reached on the basis of Type 1 processing are kept or discarded in favour of

Development of heuristic bias detection in elementary school.

Examining the detection skills of young children in elementary school indicated that 6th graders showed a clear confidence decrease when they gave a heuristic response that conflicted with the base rates, but this confidence decrease was not observed for 3rd graders, suggesting that they did not yet acknowledge that their judgment was not fully warranted.

Overcoming intuition: metacognitive difficulty activates analytic reasoning.

Four experiments suggest that System 2 processes are activated by metacognitive experiences of difficulty or disfluency during the process of reasoning that reduced the impact of heuristics and defaults in judgment, reduced reliance on peripheral cues in persuasion, and improved syllogistic reasoning.

How do we know that we know? The accessibility model of the feeling of knowing.

The present work examined the question of FOK accuracy, the links between memory strength, accessibility of correct and incorrect information about the target, FOK judgments, and recognition memory within a unified model, with the aim of demystifying the FOK phenomenon.

The Cognitive Reflection Test as a predictor of performance on heuristics-and-biases tasks

It is shown that the CRT is a more potent predictor of performance on a wide sample of tasks from the heuristics-and-biases literature than measures of cognitive ability, thinking dispositions, and executive functioning.

Cognitive Reflection and Decision Making

This paper introduces a three-item "Cognitive Reflection Test" (CRT) as a simple measure of one type of cognitive ability—the ability or disposition to reflect on a question and resist reporting the