Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology

  title={Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology},
  author={Anders Hedenstr{\"o}m and L. Christoffer Johansson},
  journal={The Journal of Experimental Biology},
  pages={653 - 663}
ABSTRACT Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats… 

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