Basic concepts in transplant immunology

@article{Martinez2005BasicCI,
  title={Basic concepts in transplant immunology},
  author={Olivia M. Martinez and Hugo R. Rosen},
  journal={Liver Transplantation},
  year={2005},
  volume={11}
}
Subsequently,spontaneousliverallograftacceptancewasalsoobservedintransplants done in several allogeneic rat strain combina-tions and most allogeneic mouse strain combinations.Moreover, other experimental studies in rodents demon-strated that allogeneic liver transplantation providesimmune“protection”againstsubsequentcardiac,kidney,pancreas, islet, and skin grafts from the same donor. 
Cellular Loss After Allogenic Hepatocyte Transplantation
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The progress in the mechanisms of cellular loss after allogenic HCTx is reviewed and both innate and adaptive immune system are implicated in the destruction to allografts.
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  • 2008
TLDR
The liver is unique among transplanted organs with respect to its interaction with the host immune system, the unique aspects of the hepatic immune response, the pathways involved in T-cell activation and alloantigen recognition, effector cells and pathways mediating liver allograft rejection, the role of regulatory T cells, and targets of current and future immunosuppressive agents.
Operational tolerance in clinical liver transplantation: emerging developments.
TLDR
There is still little understanding of the immune events that occur in transplant patients as they develop a relationship with their graft alloantigens and, at present, there are no reliable immunological parameters that enable patients who can be withdrawn from immunosuppressants without the risk of rejection to be identified.
The liver: a special case in transplantation tolerance.
TLDR
A unified model in which several mechanisms act in concert to induce and maintain tolerance in both naïve and effector T cell compartments is proposed, which will facilitate the development of strategies that specifically inhibit alloreactive memory T cells.
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  • Medicine
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  • 2017
TLDR
Because of its inherent tolerogenic properties, up to 20% of highly select liver transplant recipients can be weaned off immunosuppression completely, and no reliable biomarker predicting tolerance exists.
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Advances in immunosuppressive therapy have greatly impacted on the successful outcome of organ –and most particularly liver– transplantation. With the introduction of new immunosuppressants the
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  • Medicine
    Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • 2010
TLDR
MDCs detaching from liver grafts produce pro‐inflammatory and anti‐inflammatory cytokines and are capable of stimulating allogeneic T helper 1 responses, and this suggests that MDC chimerism after clinical LTx may contribute to liver graft rejection rather than acceptance.
[Development of immune tolerance in liver transplantation].
TLDR
The data obtained from transcriptional profiling of the peripheral blood of IS-free liver transplant recipients suggest that there is a molecular signature of tolerance that could be employed to identify tolerant liver transplants recipients and that innate immune cells are likely to play a major role in the maintenance of COT after liver transplantation.
Fetal Liver Cell Transplantation
TLDR
Fetal liver cell transplantation is a promising technique and is entering its clinical application phase, but there are many challenging issues that remain to be solved, including increasing engraftment and repopulation and in vitro cell expansion.
Tolerancia y quimerismo en el trasplante hepàtico
TLDR
Mechanisms involved in tolerance to transplanted organs are described, particularly in the setting of liver transplantation, and the role of cell chimerism and immunoregulation phenomena in tolerance development is highlighted.
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