Basic avian pulmonary design and flow-through ventilation in non-avian theropod dinosaurs.

Abstract

Birds are unique among living vertebrates in possessing pneumaticity of the postcranial skeleton, with invasion of bone by the pulmonary air-sac system. The avian respiratory system includes high-compliance air sacs that ventilate a dorsally fixed, non-expanding parabronchial lung. Caudally positioned abdominal and thoracic air sacs are critical components… (More)

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Cite this paper

@article{OConnor2005BasicAP, title={Basic avian pulmonary design and flow-through ventilation in non-avian theropod dinosaurs.}, author={Patrick M. O'Connor and Leon P A M Claessens}, journal={Nature}, year={2005}, volume={436 7048}, pages={253-6} }