Base Station Positioning, Nodes’ Localization and Clustering Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks have found hundreds of applications to simplify the management of complex problems. Energy conservation in wireless sensor nodes is prime concern to engineers in most of its applications. This becomes important as increase in the network life time depends mainly on minimizing the energy consumption in sensor nodes. Thus conserving and balancing the energy consumption is of utmost importance. Main challenge in a wireless sensor network is to design algorithms with minimum energy expenditure. LEACH [1, 2] was one of the clustering/routing protocols for two tiered wireless sensor networks which minimizes the energy consumption. This thesis has expanded on the LEACH protocol to improve the wireless sensor network performance. SYNOPSIS iii The main objective of the thesis is to investigate the mechanisms to conserve and balance the energy consumption in two tiered wireless sensor networks. In this thesis, the problems related to above aspect have been investigated. The first issue is where to place base station in a wireless sensor network. The base station position have been geometrically optimized to maximize the life of sensor network in [3-6]. The energy minimization also depend on path loss along with the position of deployed sensor nodes. In this thesis, we have considered path loss as well as geometrical parameters for defining new optimal base station location. An algorithm to estimate the sub-optimal base station position has also been proposed. The second problem is anchor free localization in a single hop wireless sensor network. Anchor free localization is important for localizing all the wireless nodes without using GPS [7-11]. Average of distances is used for the first time to localize the reference nodes in a wireless sensor network in this thesis. Clustering techniques are important to save energy in a wireless sensor network [12-22]. Two different clustering techniques have been proposed to minimize as well as to balance the energy consumption among the nodes. Also the problem of identifying bottleneck nodes have been investigated to conserve the energy in a WSN. The thesis has been organized in the following six chapters. Chapter 1 is the introduction to the wireless sensor networks. This chapter discusses the architecture of the wireless sensor networks and basics like sensors, base station, radio model and the energy consumption model. This thesis is built around the LEACH routing protocol. LEACH and its derivative Fixed-LEACH routing algorithm have been discussed in detail as the background of work …

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