5 cases of basaloid-squamous carcinoma (BSC) of oesophagus were reported. Their pathological features were: 1. The main component of the tumors were basaloid carcinoma cells. 2. Concomitant squamous cell differentiation. 3. Comedo-like necrosis in the basaloid carcinoma component of the tumor. 4. Hyaline degeneration within the stroma of the basaloid carcinoma nests (PAS+). The immunohistochemistry of keratin 10.11, CEA and EMA in the basaloid carcinoma component of BSC were negative or weak positive, while actin and S-100 were positive in some parts of the tumor sections. This suggested that the carcinoma component was poorly differentiated and somewhat tended to differentiate toward myoepithelia or other directions. We therefore consider that the origin of BSC may be the primitive totipotential cell. BSC occurred more frequently in elderly males. The biological behavior of BSC was highly malignant. Regional lymph nodes or distant organ metastasis were usually found at the first operation. The mean survival period after operation was very short, BSC was therefore considered to be a specific clinicopathological entity.