Basal forebrain regulation of cortical activity and sleep-wake states: Roles of cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons

  title={Basal forebrain regulation of cortical activity and sleep-wake states: Roles of cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons},
  author={Samuel Deurveilher and Kazue Semba},
  journal={Sleep and Biological Rhythms},
The basal forebrain (BF) plays an important role in regulating cortical activity and sleep/wake states. Both cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons of the BF project to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, whereas the hypothalamus and brainstem nuclei are mostly innervated by non-cholinergic BF neurons. Neurons in the BF show various discharge profiles in relation to cortical activity and behavioral states and are differentially modulated by neurotransmitters of other sleep/wake regulatory… 

Basal forebrain circuit for sleep-wake control

Recordings from channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-tagged neurons revealed that three BF cell types, cholinergic, glutamatergic and parvalbumin-positive (PV+) GABAergic neurons, were more active during wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than during non-REM sleep, and activation of each cell type rapidly induced wakefulness.

Cholinergic modulation of the medial prefrontal cortex: the role of nicotinic receptors in attention and regulation of neuronal activity

The evidence that cholinergic modulation of the mPFC plays a role in attention is reviewed, the current knowledge about the role between ACh receptors (AChRs) and behavior is summarized and how ACh receptor activation changes processing in the cortical microcircuitry is summarized.

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The results suggest that the on-off (activation/blockade), two-state ligand-receptor interaction model is not tenable for the 5-HT7 receptor.

The Effects of Melanin-Concentrating Hormone on Neurotransmitter Systems Involved in the Generation and Maintenance of Wakefulness

The REM sleep-inducing and sleep-facilitating effect of MCH is at least partly related to the deactivation of monoaminergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic (W-on) neurons.

Cortical–Subcortical Interactions in Hypersomnia Disorders: Mechanisms Underlying Cognitive and Behavioral Aspects of the Sleep–Wake Cycle

It is proposed that the inability to stabilize neural state due to disruptions in the sleep–wake control networks is common to the sleep and cognitive dysfunctions seen in hypersomnia and neurodegenerative disorders.

Anatomical Pathways Involved in Generating and Sensing Rhythmic Whisker Movements

The anatomy and functional roles of the cerebral cortex are described, but also those of subcortical structures like the striatum, superior colliculus, cerebellum, pontomedullary reticular formation, zona incerta, and anterior pretectal nucleus as well as those of level setting systems like the cholinergic, histaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic pathways.

A Simplified In vitro Experimental Model Encompasses the Essential Features of Sleep

In this paper, we show that neuronal assemblies plated on Micro Electrode Arrays present synchronized, low frequency firing patterns similar to in vivo slow wave oscillations, which are a key



Magnocellular nuclei of the basal forebrain: substrates of sleep and arousal regulation.

Evidence suggests that, within the waking state, the BF cholinergic system modulates processing of sensory information in the neocortex and is involved in cognitive processes, and a critical role for GABAergic-cholinergic interactions, both within the magnocellular BF and at cortical and diencephalic sites, in the regulation of behavioral state is supported.

Sleep-wake mechanisms and basal forebrain circuitry.

This treatise suggests that cholinergic and GABAergic projection neurons of the basal forebrain are anatomically in a unique position to enable the channeling of specific cellular and homeostatic states from different subcortical systems to the cortical mantle to modulate behavioral adaptation and cognitive functions.

Discharge Profiles of Identified GABAergic in Comparison to Cholinergic and Putative Glutamatergic Basal Forebrain Neurons across the Sleep–Wake Cycle

Recording and labeling neurons during natural sleep–wake states in head-fixed rats revealed that GABAergic neurons would play similar or reciprocal roles to other cholinergic and glutamatergic BF neurons in regulating cortical activity and muscle tone along with behavior across sleep-wake states.

The cholinergic basal forebrain: a critical role in cortical arousal.

  • K. Semba
  • Biology, Psychology
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 1991
In the present paper, both anatomical and physiological evidence supporting this notion is discussed, and clues are explored as to how the activity of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is regulated during different behavioral states.

Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Burst with Theta during Waking and Paradoxical Sleep

It is shown for the first time that cholinergic neurons discharge in bursts at maximal rates during active waking and paradoxical sleep, when gamma and theta electroencephalographic activity are maximal.