Tree bark is one of the most important non-timber forest products. In less developed countries, it is used for multiple purposes, particularly in traditional medicine. This paper addresses the question of bark exploitation, uses, and impacts in Madjadjane village, southern Mozambique. For that, we have conducted an ethnobotanical survey and analysed the level of damage of the ten most exploited tree species. Bark was mainly used for medical purposes, spanning 13 different applications. Most of the species had more than one medical application constituting potential sources of valuable biocompounds. In general the level of damage caused by debarking was not critical, but should be seen with caution. An upgrade and update of the results will be of utmost importance to estimate with more accuracy the current conservation status as well as to predict future impacts and define better conservation strategies. We suggest the expansion of ethnobotanical surveys as well as their integration in broad programs aimed at the preservation and valorization of local heritage. This will encourage equitable access and benefit sharing of biodiversity as well as the promotion of bio-based economy.