Band offsets in complex-oxide thin films and heterostructures of SrTiO3/LaNiO3 and SrTiO3/GdTiO3 by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

@inproceedings{Conti2013BandOI,
  title={Band offsets in complex-oxide thin films and heterostructures of SrTiO3/LaNiO3 and SrTiO3/GdTiO3 by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy},
  author={Giuseppina Conti and Alexander Kaiser and Alexander X. Gray and Slavom{\'i}r Nem{\vs}{\'a}k and Gunnar P{\'a}lsson and Junwoo Son and Pouya Moetakef and Anderson Janotti and Lars Bjaalie and C. S. Conlon and D. Eiteneer and Aaron Andrew Greer and Armela Keqi and Arunothai Rattanachata and Alexander Y Saw and Aaron A. Bostwick and Willem Stolte and Andrei Gloskovskii and Wolfgang Drube and Shigenori Ueda and Masaaki Kobata and Kojiro Kobayashi and Chris Van de Walle and Susanne Stemmer and Claus Michael Schneider and Charles S. Fadley},
  year={2013}
}
The experimental determination of valence band offsets (VBOs) at interfaces in complex-oxide heterostructures using conventional soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SXPS, hν ≤ 1500 eV) and reference core-level binding energies can present challenges because of surface charging when photoelectrons are emitted and insufficient probing depth to clearly resolve the interfaces. In this paper, we compare VBOs measured with SXPS and its multi-keV hard x-ray analogue (HXPS, hν > 2000 eV). We… CONTINUE READING