Ball lightning caused by oxidation of nanoparticle networks from normal lightning strikes on soil

  title={Ball lightning caused by oxidation of nanoparticle networks from normal lightning strikes on soil},
  author={John Abrahamson and James Dinniss},
Observations of ball lightning have been reported for centuries, but the origin of this phenomenon remains an enigma. The ‘average’ ball lightning appears as a sphere with a diameter of 300 mm, a lifetime of about 10 s, and a luminosity similar to a 100-W lamp. It floats freely in the air, and ends either in an explosion, or by simply fading from view. It almost invariably occurs during stormy weather. Several energy sources have been proposed to explain the light, but none of these models has… 
Ball lightning from atmospheric discharges via metal nanosphere oxidation: from soils, wood or metals
  • J. Abrahamson
  • Physics
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2001
This basic model of networked nanoparticles is detailed further, and extended to lightning strikes on metal structures, and also to the action of other storm–related discharges or man–made discharges.
The fragmented science of ball lightning (with comment)
  • D. Turner
  • Physics
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2001
The failure to contain plasmas electrochemically for more than a few seconds probably reflects the inability to balance (or even measure) the various fields which govern a ball's stability.
Ball Lightning–Aerosol Electrochemical Power Source or A Cloud of Batteries
Despite numerous attempts, an adequate theoretical and experimental simulation of ball lightning still remains incomplete. According to the model proposed here, the processes of electrochemical
Birth of ball lightning
[1] Many observations of ball lightning report a ball of light, about 10 cm in diameter, moving at about walking speed, lasting up to 20 s and frequently existing inside of houses and even
The Missing Science of Ball Lightning
One of the main problems in understanding ball lightning is that its properties, taken together, seem to be inconsistent with the laws of physics. This long-standing problem is completely eliminated
Ball lightning: elusive behaviour depending upon proton conductivity
A simple model of BL is presented, capable of explaining many of its observed properties, and it is suggested that the BL is a negatively charged spherical object consisting of a shell of oriented dipolar water molecules with low electronic conductivity in the radial direction and high proton conductivities in the tangential direction of the inner region of the shell.
On the physics of lightning
  • J. Lowke
  • Physics, Environmental Science
    IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
  • 2004
This paper discusses three issues related to lightning. The first is to provide a quantitative physical explanation of the lightning stepped leader, whereby breakdown from a cloud to the ground
Toward a theory of ball lightning occurring in houses and aircraft
A Review of Ball Lightning Models
Ball lightning is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the atmosphere. However due to its brevity and rarity, its occurrence is not well understood. Three models based on electromagnetic properties


The structure and stability of ball lightning
  • D. Turner
  • Physics
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 1994
The main characteristics of ball lightning are well established. They include its general appearance (shape, size range, brightness, etc.), its peculiar motion and, less satisfactorily, its energy
The properties and the nature of ball lightning
A Curious Phenomenon shown by Highly Charged Aerosols.
In the course of investigations on the electrification of aerosols, a curious phenomenon was noticed. The aerosols were volatilised in a glass chamber of about four cubic metres capacity. During the
General Relationship for the Thermal Oxidation of Silicon
The thermal‐oxidation kinetics of silicon are examined in detail. Based on a simple model of oxidation which takes into account the reactions occurring at the two boundaries of the oxide layer as
Analytical relationship for the oxidation of silicon in dry oxygen in the thin‐film regime
The oxidation of silicon in dry oxgen is characterized by an initial stage where the growth rate is larger than predicted by the Deal–Grove linear‐parabolic general oxidation relationship. This
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In the past few years, atom clusters with average diameters in the range of 5–50 nm of a variety of materials, including metals and ceramics, have been synthesized by evaporation and condensation in
Optics of small particles, interfaces, and Surfaces
Quantum Confinement in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, M.I. Freedhoff and A.P. Marchetti Spectroscopy of Confined Indirect Excitons in AgBr Quantum Crystallites, H. Stolz, H. Vogelsang, and W. von der
A luminescent silicon nanocrystal colloid via a high-temperature aerosol reaction
We describe a high-temperature aerosol apparatus for the synthesis of 3-8-nm, surface-oxidized Si crystallites. The particles are made by homogeneous gas-phase nucleation following pyrolysis of
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The carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide at high temperature was studied using a free energy minimization (FEM) program. The stability boundaries of Si(l), SiC(s), and SiO2(l), and the
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The formation of spatially ordered CeO2 particle structures in a thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 1700–2200 K is studied. The spatial structure of the particles in the