Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans: Epidemiologic Distribution in an Equal Access Health Care System

@article{Kizer2003BalanitisXO,
  title={Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans: Epidemiologic Distribution in an Equal Access Health Care System},
  author={William S. Kizer and Troy Prarie and Allen F. Morey},
  journal={Southern Medical Journal},
  year={2003},
  volume={96},
  pages={9-11}
}
Background We analyzed the incidence of balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) by both age and ethnicity at an equal-access health care facility. Methods We retrospectively reviewed discharge records from 1997 to 1999 at Brooke Army Medical Center to determine ethnicity and age of patients with BXO. Results Of 153,432 male patients, 108 (0.070%) had a diagnosis of BXO. The age distribution was similar over a range from 2 to 90 years, with the exception of the third decade, when the incidence… 
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Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans - from Etiology to Prognosis
TLDR
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TLDR
There is a paucity of evidence‐based guidelines to assist with appropriate follow-up for patients with BXO, and Histologically, BxO and vulvar LS are considered the same disease.
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TLDR
BXO remains an important cause of phimosis in boys, with some evidence that topical steroids or immunomodulators may decrease the incidence of recurrent meatal stenosis.
Balanitis xerotica obliterans
B alanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) / lichen sclerosus of the male genitalia is a common cause of acquired phimosis, and was first described by Stuhmer in 1928 [1]. It is described in medical
[Balanitis xerotica obliterans with phimosis in elderly patients presenting with difficulty in urination].
TLDR
BXO with phimosis in elderly patients should be considered as a cause of lower urinary tract symptoms and Statistically significant improvements were observed in subjective and objective findings after treatment.
The Association Between BXO and Obesity in Boys Undergoing Circumcision
TLDR
Given the increasing rates of childhood obesity and the long-term health consequences of both BXO and obesity, special attention should be paid to this population of boys.
Expression of Transglutaminase in Foreskin of Children with Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans
TLDR
Investigation of the transcript levels of three TGs in patients operated on for congenital phimosis without or with histologically confirmed BXO found reduced expression of both TG1 and TG3 was associated with the altered structure of the foreskin in BxO and can be a consequence of damage to keratinocytes.
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TLDR
The onset of balanitis xerotica obliterans is as a rule insidious, although it may appear as an acute disease with pain, itching, burning, prickling and profuse purulent secretion, which becomes chronic and in most cases slowly progressive up to a certain point, where it remains stationary.
Histopathological and immunological studies in a cohort of balanitis xerotica obliterans.
TLDR
Poor local hygiene, circumcision and association of auto-immune diseases like vitiligo are responsible as suggested in this study as well as some chronic antigenic stimulation.
Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans
TLDR
From what I have seen of the histology of periarteritis nodosa, I think that other inflammatory conditions can produce vascular lesions which may be attributed to this rare and obscure disease.
Treatment of Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans with Hydrocortisone Injections*
TLDR
The condition appears to be more common than was formerly supposed and frequently presents in two ways; there may be plaques of white sclerotic tissue on the glans penis or on the prepuce with telangiectases, and, in the past few years, attention has been drawn to this condition as it affects the male genitalia.
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TLDR
A series of eight cases of balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) developing in patients following primary hypospadias repair are reported, with the last two patients having re-do urethroplasty using bladder mucosa only and bladder-buccal mucosa technique, respectively, as first choice for BXO complicating their hypos padias repair.
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Balanitis xerotica obliterans with urethral stricture after hypospadias repair
TLDR
Surgeons need to be aware of this condition as a cause for late onset of urethral problems and complete excision of the affected urethra with topical steroid ointment or sublesional triamcinolone injection is recommended for this condition.
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TLDR
The skin affection of LSA appeared in 1985 simultaneously on the inner aspects of both wrists, then in a recent scar after an incised wound, and in an older scar in the abdominal wall after cholecystectomy (9 years old), and Histological findings were typical for LSA.
The association between lichen sclerosus and antigens of the HLA system
TLDR
Preliminary evidence that the immunogenetic profile of patients with this disease may affect disease expression with regard to site and extent of involvement is found.
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