Bacteriorhodopsin in ice. Accelerated proton transfer from the purple membrane surface.


The photocycle and the proton pumping kinetics of bacteriorhodopsin, as well as the transfer rate of protons from the membrane surface into the aqueous bulk phase were examined for purple membranes in water and ice. In water, the optical pH indicator pyranine residing in the aqueous bulk phase monitors the H(+)-release later than the pH indicator… (More)


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