Bacterial resistances to mercury and copper

  title={Bacterial resistances to mercury and copper},
  author={A. Morby and J. Parkhill and Barry T. O. Lee and N. Brown and D. Rouch and J. Camakaris and T. Williams},
  journal={Journal of Cellular Biochemistry},
Heavy metals are toxic to living organisms. Some have no known beneficial biological function, while others have essential roles in physiological reactions. Mechanisms which deal with heavy metal stress must protect against the deleterious effects of heavy metals, yet avoid depleting the cell of a heavy metal which is also an essential nutrient. We describe the mechanims of resistance in Escherichia coli to two different heavy metals, mercury and copper. Resistance of E. coli to mercury is… Expand
Chemical and Genetic Studies of Copper Resistance in E. coli
Copper is an essential trace element required for bacterial growth, but is toxic at high levels of free ions. Bacteria are thus presented with the complex problem of obtaining and storing sufficientExpand
Efflux-mediated heavy metal resistance in prokaryotes.
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  • Biology, Medicine
  • FEMS microbiology reviews
  • 2003
The complement of efflux systems of 63 sequenced prokaryotes was compared with that of the heavy metal resistant bacterium Ralstonia metallidurans and showed that heavy metal resistance is the result of multiple layers of resistance systems with overlapping substrate specificities, but unique functions. Expand
Tolerance to Various Toxicants by Marine Bacteria Highly Resistant to Mercury
Plasmid-curing assays done in this study ascertained that resistance to mercury antibiotics, and toxic xenobiotics is mediated by chromosomally borne genes and/or transposable elements rather than by plasmids. Expand
Distribution, diversity and evolution of the bacterial mercury resistance (mer) operon.
The mer operon provides a model system in the study of environmental microbiology which is useful both as an example of a genotype which is responsive to environmental pressures and as a generic tool for the development of new methodology for the analysis of bacterial communities in natural environments. Expand
Copper resistance determinants in bacteria.
What is known about bacterial copper resistance mechanisms and their genetic regulation is outlined, and the mechanisms which confer resistance must be integrated with the normal metabolism of copper. Expand
Understanding cellular responses to toxic agents: a model for mechanism-choice in bacterial metal resistance
To understand better the diverse responses of bacteria to metal ion challenge, a qualitative model for the selection of metal resistance in bacteria is constructed and allows prediction of the genetic basis and of mechanisms of resistance which are in substantial agreement with those in well-documented populations. Expand
The effect of a continuous mercury stress on mercury reducing community of some characterized bacterial strains
Community analysis suggested that the bacterial strain E. coli Z3 containing Tn5036-like determinant is the well adapted strain that tolerated elevated levels of mercury whereas the other strains showed a less fitness under these extreme conditions. Expand
Cysteine and histidine residues are involved in Escherichia coli Tn21 MerE methylmercury transport
Enhanced mercurial uptake mediated by MerE may be a promising strategy for the design of new biomass for use in the bioremediation of mercurials in the environment. Expand
Bacterial copper transport.
Publisher Summary The chapter presents the study of the En. hirae model system, which has shown the modes of copper entry into and out of the cell by the action of copper ATPases, transcriptionalExpand
Inorganic Cation Transport and Energy Transduction in Enterococcus hirae and Other Streptococci
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  • Medicine, Biology
  • Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews
  • 1998
This review is concerned with cation transport in the fermentative streptococci, particularly Enterococcus hirae, and finds that ATP plays a much more important role in transmembrane transport than it does in nonfermentative organisms. Expand


Bacterial Response to Copper in the Environment: Copper Resistance in Escherichia coli as a Model System
In order to study the biological effects of heavy metals, it is necessary to make a distinction between two types of heavy metals (1) metals that are toxic per se and (2) metals which are essentialExpand
Cloning and expression of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans mercury ion resistance genes in Escherichia coli
A search of various domestic isolates of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans revealed that some were fairly resistant to mercury ion. A proportion of mercury-resistant clones were able to volatilize mercury,Expand
Inducible plasmid-mediated copper resistance in Escherichia coli.
It is proposed that the inducible plasmid-coded copper resistance interacts with the normal metabolism of the cell to protect against toxic levels of copper while allowing continued operation of copper-dependent functions. Expand
Ultrasensitivity and heavy-metal selectivity of the allosterically modulated MerR transcription complex.
  • D. Ralston, T. O’Halloran
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1990
The MerR metalloregulatory protein is a heavy-metal receptor that functions as the repressor and Hg(II)-responsive transcription activator of the prokaryotic mercury-resistance genes and exhibits a high degree of selectivity. Expand
Distribution of mercury resistance determinants in bacterial communities of river sediments
The results indicate that mercury resistance systems which are not homogeneous with the mer operon exist in the sediment environment and genotypic variation was higher at sites with lower mercury concentrations than sites with elevated mercury concentrations. Expand
The role and mechanism of metal ions and their complexes in enhancing damage in biological systems or in protecting these systems from these systems from the toxicity of O2
Abstract Cooper complexes of 1,10-phenanthroline and some substituted 1,10-phenanthroline cleave DNA in the presence of a reducing agent and molecular oxygen. Generally, the damage is attributed toExpand
Conserved domains in bacterial regulatory proteins that respond to environmental stimuli
The pattern of protein sequence homology suggests that during prokaryotic evolution, a two-component system has been continually adapted for sensing specific changes in the environment and transducing that information to the transcriptional apparatus. Expand
The MerR heavy metal receptor mediates positive activation in a topologically novel transcription complex
The results support a model for transcriptional activation that includes both effector-induced protein-protein interactions and activator-induced alteration in DNA structure. Expand
Plasmid-controlled resistance to copper in Escherichia coli
The copper resistance of a strain of Escherichia coli isolated from the effluent of a piggery where pigs were fed a diet supplemented with copper sulfate was controlled by a conjugative 78-megadaltonExpand
Tn5 insertion mutations in the mercuric ion resistance genes derived from plasmid R100
The merR gene product appears to regulate negatively its own expression as well as acting as both a negative and a positive regulator of the merTCA genes. Expand