Bacterial membrane vesicles deliver peptidoglycan to NOD1 in epithelial cells.

@article{Kaparakis2010BacterialMV,
  title={Bacterial membrane vesicles deliver peptidoglycan to NOD1 in epithelial cells.},
  author={Maria Kaparakis and Lynne Turnbull and Let{\'i}cia Carneiro and Stephen Firth and Harold A. Coleman and Helena C Parkington and Lionel Le Bourhis and Abdulgader Karrar and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Viala and Johnson Mak and Melanie L. Hutton and John Keith Davies and Peter J Crack and Paul J. Hertzog and Dana J Philpott and Stephen E Girardin and Cynthia B Whitchurch and Richard L Ferrero},
  journal={Cellular microbiology},
  year={2010},
  volume={12 3},
  pages={
          372-85
        }
}
Gram-negative bacterial peptidoglycan is specifically recognized by the host intracellular sensor NOD1, resulting in the generation of innate immune responses. Although epithelial cells are normally refractory to external stimulation with peptidoglycan, these cells have been shown to respond in a NOD1-dependent manner to Gram-negative pathogens that can either invade or secrete factors into host cells. In the present work, we report that Gram-negative bacteria can deliver peptidoglycan to… CONTINUE READING

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