Bacterial endotoxin: molecular relationships of structure to activity and function

@article{Rietschel1994BacterialEM,
  title={Bacterial endotoxin: molecular relationships of structure to activity and function},
  author={Ernst Th. Rietschel and Teruo Kirikae and Fritz Ulrich Schade and Uwe Mamat and G. Schmidt and Harald Loppnow and Artur J. Ulmer and Ulrich Zähringer and Ulrich Seydel and Franco E. Di Padova and M. H. Schreier and Helmut Brade},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
  year={1994},
  volume={8},
  pages={217 - 225}
}
Endotoxins of Gram‐negative microbes fulfill as components of the outer membrane a vital function for bacterial viability and, if set free, induce in mammalians potent pathophysiological effects. Chemically, they are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) consisting of an O‐specific chain, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid component, termed lipid A. The latter determines the endotoxic activities and, together with the core constituent Kdo, essential functions for bacteria. The primary structure of lipid A… Expand
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Abstract Lipid A is a microheterogeneous Gram-negative bacterial glycolipid responsible for bacterial interaction with the innate immune system of mammalian host. Lipid A, which comprises just aExpand
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The biochemical machinery required for the production of diverse lipid A structures of human pathogens and how structural modification of endotoxin impacts pathogenesis are summarized. Expand
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Current Progress in the Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Proteins Involved in the Assembly of Lipopolysaccharide
TLDR
The following review describes the current state of the understanding of the proteins responsible for the synthesis and transport of LPS with an emphasis on the contribution of protein structures to the authors' understanding of their functions. Expand
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TLDR
The chemical aspects regarding lipid A and its role in innate immunity are described and discussed, from the (bio)synthesis, isolation and characterization to the molecular recognition at the atomic level. Expand
Lipopolysaccharide, structure and biological effects
TLDR
There are other substances that may produce pyrogenic responses such as plastics, but the potentially life-threatening substance is Lipid A from LPS, the “endotoxic” component of LPS. Expand
Review: Bacterial endotoxin and the human monoclonal antibody HA-IA: specificity, potential mechanisms of action, and limits to its effectiveness
TLDR
Results are described which demonstrate the requirements for, difficulties in and limits to, elucidating the ability of certain antibodies to recognize structural elements present in the lipid A domain of LPS. Expand
Isolation and chemical characterization of lipid A from gram-negative bacteria.
TLDR
T tandem MS protocols for analyzing lipid A molecular species using electrospray ionization coupled to collision induced dissociation (CID) and newly employed ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) methods are described, allowing for unequivocal determination of chemical structure, paramount to characterization of lipid A molecules that contain unique or novel chemical modifications. Expand
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