This research is part of a project aimed at verifying the potential of a specifically assessed wooded riparian zone in removing the excess of combined nitrogen from the Zero River so as to reduce nutrient inputs into the Venice Lagoon. Among the specific objectives of the project, there was the determination of change in the composition of the microbial populations of soil of the wooded riparian strip. The composition of the bacterial communities collected at different depths inside and outside the riparian strip was determined by combined approaches involving cultivation (CFU), microscopic approaches (CTC test), and DNA-based techniques (ARDRA and DGGE). The size of the living population was the same inside and outside the experimental strip, with a minor percentage of culturable bacteria. Higher numbers of metabolically active bacteria and higher bacterial diversity were detected in the internal soil, with deeper soil layers showing reduced diversity, thus indicating that soil management within the riparian strip effectively supports the viability of bacterial communities. Total operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and percentage of single OTUs were also found to be always higher in the internal soil samples for all soil layers, with the percentage of Firmicutes increasing and Actinobacteria decreasing with depth. The increasing soil organic carbon inputs due to the contribution of the growing plants were found to support bacterial diversity in all soil layers. DNA-based analysis also indicated a clear effect of the applied treatments on soil bacterial diversity and a well-defined separation of the bacterial communities related to the different soil layers of the riparian strip.