Bacterial disease resistance in Arabidopsis through flagellin perception

@article{Zipfel2004BacterialDR,
  title={Bacterial disease resistance in Arabidopsis through flagellin perception},
  author={Cyril Zipfel and Silke Robatzek and Lionel Navarro and Edward J. Oakeley and Jonathan D. G. Jones and Georg Felix and Thomas Boller},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2004},
  volume={428},
  pages={764-767}
}
Plants and animals recognize microbial invaders by detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as flagellin. [] Key Result This induced resistance seems to be independent of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signalling. Wild-type and fls2 mutants both display enhanced resistance when treated with crude bacterial extracts, even devoid of elicitor-active flagellin, indicating the existence of functional perception systems for PAMPs other than flagellin.
Receptor-like kinases and pathogen-associated molecular patterns perception in Arabidopsis
TLDR
It is demonstrated that flagellin perception contributes to the basal resistance against bacteria, as fls2 mutants are more susceptible to bacterial infection, proving for the first time that perception of a single PAMP is sufficient to restrict bacterial growth.
An immune receptor complex evolved in soybean to perceive a polymorphic bacterial flagellin
TLDR
Soybean has evolved a divergent flagellin receptor that recognises R. solanacearum flageLLin and enhances wilt resistance when transferred to other plants, demonstrating the potential of these receptors to enhance disease resistance in crop plants.
Early events in the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae on Nicotiana benthamiana.
TLDR
It is shown here that the solanaceous species Nicotiana benthamiana perceives the flagellin proteins of both pathogenic and non-host species of Pseudomonas syringae, and this observation separates the respective mechanisms of the two effectors, and suggests that AvrPtoB may target the defence machinery directly for its suppressive effect.
Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs)
TLDR
By using chemical cross-linking and immunoprecipitation techniques, Chinchilla et al. showed that the specificity of flagellin perception and immune responses is mediated by the binding of FLS2 to flg22 in A. thaliana.
Pseudomonas syringae evades host immunity by degrading flagellin monomers with alkaline protease AprA.
TLDR
The results suggest that AprA of DC3000 is important for evasion of recognition by the FLS2 receptor, allowing wild-type DC3000 to be more virulent on its host plant than AprA-deficient DC3000 ΔaprA.
Expression of a bacterial flagellin gene triggers plant immune responses and confers disease resistance in transgenic rice plants.
TLDR
Transgenic plants inoculated with Magnaporthe grisea, the causal agent of rice blast, showed enhanced resistance to blast, suggesting that the flagellin production confers disease resistance in the transgenic rice.
Pseudomonas syringae AlgU Downregulates Flagellin Gene Expression, Helping Evade Plant Immunity
TLDR
During plant infection, AlgU, a gene expression regulator that's responsive to external stimuli, downregulates expression of fliC, which encodes the flagellin protein, a strong elicitor of plant immune systems, which correlates with reduced plant immune activation and improved P. syringae plant colonization.
The Arabidopsis flagellin receptor FLS2 mediates the perception of Xanthomonas Ax21 secreted peptides
TLDR
It is shown that Ax21-derived peptides activate Arabidopsis immunity, triggering responses similar to those elicited by flagellin, including an oxidative burst, induction of defense-response genes, and enhanced resistance to bacterial pathogens.
Flagellin induces innate immunity in nonhost interactions that is suppressed by Pseudomonas syringae effectors.
TLDR
It is shown that NHO1 is transcriptionally activated by flagellin, and a remarkable number of DC3000 virulence factors act in the plant cell by suppressing the species level defenses, and that contributes to the specialization of DC 3000 on Arabidopsis.
Analysis of flagellin perception mediated by flg22 receptor OsFLS2 in rice.
TLDR
The results suggest that rice possesses a conserved flagellin perception system utilizing the FLS2 receptor which, when upregulated, hardly affects resistance against compatible A. avenae.
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