Antioxidant and anti infective potential of Oleanolic acid acetate vis-à-vis Vitex negundo Linn. and Oroxylum indicum Vent. against human pathogens causing infections of UT, GIT and skin
Bacterial colitis results in an inflammatory-type diarrhea that is characterized by bloody, purulent, and mucoid stool. These diseases have been designated as bacterial hemorrhagic enterocolitis. Associated symptoms include fever, tenesmus, and severe abdominal pain. The pathologic changes range from superficial exudative enterocolitis to a transmural enterocolitis with ulceration. Common pathologic bacteria causing bacterial colitis include Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, and Yersinia species. The primary source of transmission is fecal-oral spread and ingestion of contaminated food and water. Although detailed history and identification of specific risk factors assist in the diagnosis, definitive diagnosis requires bacterial identification. Therefore, the physician must be familiar with the disease pathophysiology, epidemiology, and specific diagnostic modalities for clinical diagnosis and management. Specific tests are used to detect enteric pathogens and include stool and rectal swab culture, histology, and identification of specific bacterial toxins. Although many of these bacterial colitis infections are self-limiting, antibiotics should be used for high-risk patients and patients with complicated disease.