Bacterial biofilms: from the Natural environment to infectious diseases

@article{HallStoodley2004BacterialBF,
  title={Bacterial biofilms: from the Natural environment to infectious diseases},
  author={Luanne Hall-Stoodley and J. William Costerton and Paul Stoodley},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
  year={2004},
  volume={2},
  pages={95-108}
}
Biofilms — matrix-enclosed microbial accretions that adhere to biological or non-biological surfaces — represent a significant and incompletely understood mode of growth for bacteria. Biofilm formation appears early in the fossil record (∼3.25 billion years ago) and is common throughout a diverse range of organisms in both the Archaea and Bacteria lineages, including the 'living fossils' in the most deeply dividing branches of the phylogenetic tree. It is evident that biofilm formation is an… 

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