Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections.

  title={Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections.},
  author={J. William Costerton and Philip S Stewart and E. Peter Greenberg},
  volume={284 5418},
Bacteria that attach to surfaces aggregate in a hydrated polymeric matrix of their own synthesis to form biofilms. Formation of these sessile communities and their inherent resistance to antimicrobial agents are at the root of many persistent and chronic bacterial infections. Studies of biofilms have revealed differentiated, structured groups of cells with community properties. Recent advances in our understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of bacterial community behavior point to… 

Biofilms: microbes and disease.

  • M. AparnaS. Yadav
  • Medicine, Biology
    The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases : an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
  • 2008
This review attempts to discuss the stages in biofilm formation, their pathogenic mechanisms, effect of antimicrobial agents, detection and eradication of the biofilms.

Biofilms: Microbial Shelters Against Antibiotics.

An overview of the contribution of biofilms to persistent infections resistant to antibiotic treatment, the impact of multispecies bioFilms on drug resistance and tolerance, and recent advances in the development of antibiofilm agents is provided.

Biofilms, wound infection and the issue of control

Biofilms are surface-attached microbial communities with characteristic architecture and phenotypic and biochemical properties distinct from their planktonic counterparts and bacteria within these communities employ distinct mechanisms to resist the action of antimicrobial agents.

Bacterial Biofilms: Survival Mechanisms and Antibiotic Resistance

The present review will focus on the mechanisms that lead to biofilm formation on surfaces and highlight several medically important pathogens.


The expanding knowledge of biofilm-related infections has broadened the view of possible infectious agents and created a strong demand for new diagnostic attitudes and techniques that overcome the main limitation for detection of infections due to biofilms.

Bacterial Biofilms and Human Disease

The role that biofilms play in human disease is described and a new millennial view of these complex and fascinating bacterial communities is outlined.

Biofilm formation in bacterial pathogens of veterinary importance

The current knowledge of bacterial biofilms as well as studies performed on animal pathogens are reviewed, finding that biofilm formation by bacterial pathogens of veterinary importance has received relatively little attention.

Bacterial biofilms: a review of current research.

Four areas of current biofilm research are overview of: biofilm resistance to antimicrobials and host defense mechanisms, the complexity of biofilm structure, the possible existence of a biofilm phenotype, and the ramifications of cell cell communication within the biofilm.

Bacterial Biofilm and its Clinical Implications

Bacteria with increased hydrophobicity facilitate biofilm formation by reducing repulsion between the extracellular matrix and the bacterium.



Mechanisms of adhesion by oral bacteria.

The potential roles of adherence-relevant molecules are discussed in the context of the dynamic nature of the oral econiche in terms of adhesin-receptor cognate pairs on genetically distinct cells.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm as a diffusion barrier to piperacillin

Thin-layer chromatography of fluids distal to untreated (viable and nonviable) and viable Ca(2+)-treated P. aeruginosa mutant noninducible for the expression of beta-lactamase did not detect piperacillinoic acid.

Investigation of ciprofloxacin penetration into Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

It is suggested that transport limitations may be an important factor in the antimicrobial resistance of biofilm bacteria and that ATR/FT-IR spectrometry may be used to follow the time course of antimicrobial action in biofilms in situ.

Tobramycin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells growing as a biofilm on urinary catheter material

Data indicate that growth within thick adherent biofilms confers a measure of tobramycin resistance on cells of P. aeruginosa.

Mathematical model of β-lactam penetration into a biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa while undergoing simultaneous inactivation by released β-lactamases

It is shown here that lysis of cells in the surface layers of a film could have an important protective effect on the viability of underlying bacteria, especially in thick biofilms.

Flagellar and twitching motility are necessary for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

The isolation and characterization of mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 defective in the initiation of biofilm formation on an abiotic surface, polyvinylchloride (PVC) plastic are reported and evidence that microcolonies form by aggregation of cells present in the monolayer is presented.

In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Levofloxacin against Biofilm-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa

The significant role of levofloxacin in therapy of biofilm bacterium-associated infectious diseases is suggested and experimental pneumonia in guinea pigs, in which the biofilm mode of growth of the strain was observed in the lung, is suggested.

A Sandwich Cup Method for the Penetration Assay of Antimicrobial Agents through Pseudomonas Exopolysaccharides

The results suggest that the microenvironment at the infection site could greatly influence drug penetration through biofilms in vivo.

Quorum sensing in bacteria: the LuxR-LuxI family of cell density-responsive transcriptional regulators

How the marine luminescent bacterium V. fischeri uses the LuxR and LuxI proteins for intercellular communication is reviewed and a newly discovered family of LuxRand LuxI homologs in diverse bacterial species is described.