Bacterial and fungal killing by iontophoresis with long-lived electrodes.


Iontophoresis with gold, carbon, and platinum electrodes was shown to effectively reduce or eliminate gram-positive, gram-negative, and Candida albicans inocula in synthetic urine. Platinum and gold electrodes were more effective than carbon electrodes, but platinum showed the best longevity and may reduce or eliminate microbial colonization of catheters.