Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that can enter and invade host cells. In the course of its infection, RNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms provide a fast and versatile response for both the bacterium and the host. They regulate a variety of processes, such as environment sensing and virulence in pathogenic bacteria, as well as development, cellular differentiation, metabolism and immune responses in eukaryotic cells. The aim of this article is to summarize first the RNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms that play a role in the Listeria lifestyle and in its virulence, and then the host miRNA responses to Listeria infection. Finally, we discuss the potential cross-talk between bacterial RNAs and host RNA regulatory mechanisms as new mechanisms of bacterial virulence.